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Italian Baroque

by: Diana Laura Gerardo

Italian Baroque 1306-001

Diana Laura Gerardo
GPA 3.75

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About this Document

These notes cover the works from the Italian Baroque era. You'll need them for our next exam, which will take place the week of the 11th and 13th of April, depending on the first letter of your las...
Art History II
Anne Perry
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Diana Laura Gerardo on Sunday March 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1306-001 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Anne Perry in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Art History II in Art at University of Texas at El Paso.


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Date Created: 03/27/16
Page 1 I. Italian Baroque Art a. Characteristics of the Baroque i. Baroque originates from the Portuguese barroco, meaning “irregularly  shaped pearl” ii. Rome responds to Martin Luther’s criticisms with a Counter­Reformation. iii. Religious images deemed necessary to teach the laity and inspire piety. iv. v. The 3 D’s of the Baroque: drama (lighting), the diagonal (complex  compositional arrangements), and dynamism (movement). vi. Baroque architecture is characterized by monumentality, movement, or  heavy decoration. vii. Rome – the Birthplace of Baroque style b. Carlo Maderno, Plan for Saint Peter’s Basilica, Vatican City, Rome, 1607. i. Latin cross plan­ structure design for churches in which the arms of the  “cross” are the same length. Originally designed by Michelangelo. ii. Longitudinal plan­ vertically extended modern cross design. iii. Saint Peter is, according to Catholic teachings, the 1  pope of the Catholic  Church.  c. Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1506­1666; Façade designed by Carlo  Maderno, 1606­1612; Piazza designed by Gianlorenzo Bernini. i. Carlos Maderno’s façade­ 1. Roman temple with Corinthian columns 2. Elongated horizontally. d. Saint Peter’s Basilica, Vatica, begun by Bramante, 1506, Nave begun by Carlo  Maderno, 1607. i. Marble ii. Roman barrel vault e. Gianlorenzo Bernini, Baldacchino, Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1624­ 1633, Gilded bronze, marble. Page 2 i. High altar with dramatic lighting that emanates feelings of piety and  inspiration. f. Gianlorenzo Bernini, David, 1623, Marble. i. Serious, intimidating, dramatic, twisted form like the twisted columns of  the high altar in St. Peter’s Basilica. g. Gianlorenzo Bernini, Apollo and Daphne, 1622­1625, marble. i. Apollo­ sun god who is shot by Cupid’s arrow and falls for Daphne. She’s  not interested but he pursues her. 1. She prays to the woodland spirits and they transform her into a  laurel tree. 2. You can see the bark growing on her and her toes are becoming  roots. Her hands are the branches and have leaves Page 3 h. Gianlorenzo Bernini, Ecstasy of Saint Teresa, Coronaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome, 1645­1652, Marble. i. Saint Teresa de Avila was a nun who designed the entire Coronaro  Chapel. 1. Bernini created false theatre boxes for sculpted members of the  Coronaro family. They were essentially front­row seats for the  sculptures. 2. Heaven looks like a very dramatic and theatrical golden glory. 3. Bernini used to design stage sets for the theatre. 4. The sculpture has beautiful marble colors and a secret hidden  window above it. 5. It looks like she has very heavy fabric. 6. The angel is gently pulling up her robe to pierce Saint Teresa’s  heart with a small gold spear (the iron point has a small fire, which represents the love of God). He has light fabric and a very sweet,  gentle smile. 7. She looks to be sighing with relief; her hand and foot shown look  limp. This sculpture is her receiving a caress of God’s love and she is waking up her faith. Hence, her facial expressions. i. Gianlorenzo Bernini, Saint Peter’s Square (Piazza San Pietro) with Colonnade,  Vatican City, 1665­1676. i. Colonnade­ A line of columns on the same plain. ii. The obelisk and 1 fountain were already in that location when he began to  design it. iii. The Colonnade is like the maternal arms of the Church, beckoning and  welcoming the people. iv. Sculptures made by Bernini’s assistants j. Francesco Borromini, San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Rome, Italy, 1665­1676. i. The mosaic cthss details are similar to Sebastiano Serlio’s architectural  treatise, 16  century from “Temple of Bacchus”. ii. Dynamism and movement are important details of the Baroque era. k. Caravaggio, Conversion of Saint Paul, Cerasi Chapel, Santa Maria del Popolo,  Rome, 1601, oil on canvas. i. About Caravaggio:  Page 4 1. He was a drunk, brawler, and even killed a man once in a knife  fight. 2. He would ask mainly homeless people to be his models. ii. Tenebrism­ the style of lighting and shadow in a theatrical manner. A  spotlight that gradually darkens everything else with a great contrast. iii. Saul was a Pharisee and was upset about Jesus preaching. He travels to  Damascus and is converted to Catholicism from Protestantism. iv. This piece aids the Counter Reformation. l. Caravaggio, Calling of St. Matthew, c. 1597­1601, Contarelli Chapel, San Luigi  dei Francesi, Rome, oil on canvas. i. Reference to the Creation of Adam in the Sistine Chapel ii. Christ is pointing at him and tells him to leave his things and follow him. 1. Caravaggio wished to be chosen too. He hoped to be saved. m. Artemesia Gentileschi, Judith Slaying Holofernes, c. 1614­1620, Oil on canvas i. Gentileschi was brutally raped. ii. She painted 4 different versions of this. iii. Holofernes was persecuting the Hebrews and so she took it upon herself to kill him. 1. She made a date with him and gave him enough drinks to make  him drunk. 2. She and her woman servant decapitate him. 3. Gentileschi felt satisfaction by this brutal, gory painting because of her rape incident. n. Fra Andrea Pozzo, Glorification of Saint Ignatius, ceiling fresco in the nave of  Sant’ Ignazio, Rome, Italy, 1691­1694 i. The architecture “extends” towards the heavens. ii. Christ waits for Ignatius of Loyola. iii. Reference to Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel ceiling. iv. Portrays the continents and personifies them. v. The 4 corners of the world, a.k.a. the 4 major continents, are portrayed.


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