Development Psychology PSYC
Austin Community College
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Candice Kertzmann on Monday November 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC at Austin Community College taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/234392/psyc-austin-community-college in Psychlogy at Austin Community College.
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Date Created: 11/02/15
Introduction to Psychology Chapter 1 Welcome to the Study of Psychology What do psychologists study these days a Normal behavior causes and mechanisms 1 Abnormal behavior and mental illness Goals of modern psychology 1 Study the essentials of behavior and mind Why do people act think and feel the way they do 1 Develop a knowledge base about human and animal behavior Can Psychology Be Truly Scienti c Human behavior difficult to predict precisely 1 However Governed by general principles 1 Similar to general principles in physics Behavior multiply determined a Current environment a Culture 1 Genetics 1 Momenttomoment experiences 9 3 ggagaervefig our environment Mental processes contribute to survival Solving adaptive problems Find a way to meet challenges to survival 1 Example How do you recognize and avoid danger Understanding purpose of processes leads to better understanding of those processes 11 Psychology s Roots The Great Philosophers Plato 428 BC 347 BC argues for nativism u innate knowledge uAristotIe 384 BC 322 BC and tabula rasa a philosophical empiricism Descartes 1596 1650 dualism u pineal gland Phrenology takes Gall 1758 1828 a mapping the mind 11 Psychology s Roots Biology Matters Pierre Flourens 1794 1867 madded precision through surgical experiments Paul Broca 1825 1880 a patient unable to speak but could understand a Broca s area From Physiology to Psychology 1 Helmholtz 1821 1894 the speed of responses uWundt 1832 1920 structualism 11 Psychology s Roots Corning to the USA Titchener 1867 1927 a hard introspective labor a Elemental qualities of consciousness uJames 1842 1910 ufunctional approach Darwin The Origin of Species 1859 a natural selection 6 Stanley Hall 1844 1924 uchild39devetoprrrent398radolescence I The First Psychology Laboratory 1879 University of Lepzig Wilhelm Wundt a Philosophy professor with background in physiology 1 Advocated scientific techniques for studying mental processes a Main focus Immediate conscious expenence I Structuralism Wundt later Edward Titchener Analyze elements of sensations and feelings a Example Sensation of taste is made up of salty bitter sour and sweet Technique Systematic introspection a Selfreport by trained individuals Functionalism William James James Rowland Angell Understand mental processes by understanding the goal or purpose of those processes a Example What is the goal or purpose of memory I Greatly influenced by work of DanNin I Behaviorism John B Watson B F Skinner Problems with introspection 1 Cannot directly observe mental events a Subjective varies by individual Solution Focus only on observable behavior in carefully controlled experiments a Speeial emehasis en animal behavier Sigmund Freud Trained as a medical doctor in Vienna Observation Some physical problems have psychological causes Established early methods for treating psychological disorders I Freud s Ideas Psychoanalysis Freud s theory of how the mind works and how to address disorders Psychological problems solved through insight I Unconscious mind a Conflicts memories outside of awareness 1 Many psychological problems arise from childhood experiences 14 Beyond Behaviorism Advent of computers a decline in behaviorism Information processing systems a can we think of mental events as the flow of information through the mind a computer metaphor Cognitive psychology 1 Remembering attending thinking believing evaluating feeling and assessing 14 The Emergence of Cognitive Psychology uSir Frederic Bartlett 1886 1969 memory a expectations effect memory Hermann Ebbinghaus 1850 1909 nonsense syllables for studying memory I Piaget 1896 1980 a cognitive errors of children and insight into mind I Kurt LeWin 1890 1947 a behavior is predicted by person s subjective experience of the world 14 The Rise of Cognitive Neuroscience Cognitive psychologists studied the software of the brain a but what about the hardware Karl Lashley 1890 1958 atrain rats to run maze usurgically remove brain parts amp run maze again a hope to find spot in brain where learning occurs Scientists who followed developed area now called behavioral neurosmence 15 Social and Cultural Perspectives Social psychology aTriplett s bicycle study aLewin s field theory aAsch s mental chemistry aAllport stereotyping prejudice and racism 15 Social and Cultural Perspectives ICultural psychology adefining culture anndt paid attention to culture manthropology and psychology nabsolutism arelativism 16 Psychology s Past and Present Juy 1892 APA is born at Clark University 17 original members 150000 members today 920 come from academia APS formed in 1982 a renamed in 2006 16 Psychology s Past and Present nMary Whiton Calkins 1863 1930 a first woman elected president of APA Francis Cecil Sumner 1895 1954 ufirst African American to hold PhD in psychology Kenneth Clark 1914 2005 ufirst member of a minority group to become president ofAPA nelected in 1970 I Clinical Psychologists Main focus Diagnosing and treating psychological problems a Clinics private practice Counseling psychologists 1 Focus on specific adjustment issues eg marriage problems Psychiatrists uMedicaldoctorsspecial39 izinan psychological problems Applicd Psychologists Not involved with psychological disorders Main focus Applying psychology to practical problems in the real world Examples 1 School psychologists a ndustrialorganizational psychologists a umar1 faeters psyehelegists I Research Psychologists Main focus Conducting experiments Work in universities colleges research institutes a Biopsychologists a Personality psychologists a Cognitive psychologists a Developmental psychologists aSocialpsychologists