PSYCH 306 Chapter 10
PSYCH 306 Chapter 10 82679 - PSYC 3060 - 001
Popular in Human Sexual Behavior
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Dunne on Monday November 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 82679 - PSYC 3060 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Bruce Michael King in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Human Sexual Behavior in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 11/02/15
Chapter 10 LifeSpan Sexual Development 0 Early Infancy Ages 01 0 Ultrasound recording have discovered that male fetuses have erections months before they are born 0 After birth baby boys often have erections before the umbilical cord is cut 0 Baby girls can have vaginal lubrication in the rst 24 months after birth 0 An important part of emotional development involves the amount of hugging and cuddling that an infant has 0 As soon as infants gain control over their movements they begin to touch all their body parts They may stimulate themselves This happens because the nerve endings in the genital areas have already developed Their behavior is aimed at nd pleasurable physical sensations not expressing sexual desires 00 Early Childhood Ages 26 0 Children being to paly with others and their curiosity extends not only to their own bodies but other kids 0 Interest in genitals is very common during this age 0 Young children re interested in the physical differences between boys and girls and will play games that allow for sexual exploration 0 What may be harmful is parents reacting too strongly when they catch their children engaging in sex 0 Sexual exploration games are often played with the same sex Allowing children to explore their bodies will make them more comfortable with their bodies as an adult 0 Family plays a large role in the sexual impact of the child 3 The Initial SchoolAge Years Ages 711 0 Freud believed that this was the time of latency when children ere not concerned with sexuality 0 Children have developed a sense of modesty 0 Several studies of adults recollections show they there was a large majority of sexual interaction before puberty 0 Children tend to segregate by sex by age 9 0 Girls are normally treated more harshly than males 0 Although the amount of overtly sexual play may decrease during the initial school age years curiosity about sex does not and children often ask where babies come from o Abundance of evidence that sexuality developed steadily throughout childhood 0 Puberty Ages 715 o The time in life when an individual rst shows sexual attraction and becomes capable of reproduction 0 Process lasting several years 0 First stage the adrenal glands start to mature when children are between the ages of 6 and 8 The adrenal glands secrete androgen hormone DHEA which is then converted to testosterone and estrogen at this stage the girls and boys experience an increase in androgens quotmalequot hormones 0 Second stage testicles and ovaries mature The pituitary gland begins to secrete FSH in high doses stimulating the production of sperm and maturation of ova in girls 0 Secondary sex characteristics bodily changes that occur during puberty and differentiate men and women 0 Changes in girls First sign is the development of breast buds average age of about 10 Growth spurts start starts earlier than boys Girls generally stop growing by age 16 Increase in estrogen levels also causes an increase in fatty deposits in the hips and buttocks Pubic hair followed by underarm hair appears These hormones cause the sweat glands and sebaceous glands to develop so that body odor and acne often become new sources of concern Menarche the term or the girls rst menstrual pedod Average age occurs between 12 and 13 The rise in estrogen levels causes the vaginal walls to become thicker and more elastic The average age for menarche has been dropping over the last few centuries Reason for this is better nutrition resulting in an earlier acquisition of some minimally required amount of body fat the putative signal that tells the brain to start releasing FSH 0 Changes in boys Pubertal development in boys lags about 2 years behind development in girls First change is growth in testicles and scrotum result of increased levels of testosterone Testosterone them stimulates growth of the penis prostate gland and seminal vesicles Growth of testicles begins ages 1112 and is done by age 15 Nocturnal emission an ejaculation that occurs during sleep in teenaged boys and men quotwet dreamquot Occurs during REM Many boys also develop temporarily enlarged breasts during puberty called gynecomastia Pubic hair develops but underarm and facial hair generally do not appear for another 2 years Amount of body hair is determined by hereditary Deepening of voice a result of testosterone stimulating the growth of the voice box 0 Precocious and Delayed Puberty Precocious puberty a condition in which puberty begins before the age of 8 in girls and 9 in boys 0 This is due to premature activation of adrenal or pituitary hormones and is 10 times for common in girls than in boys 0 The youngest girl to have given birth was 5 years old People speculate that early development of secondary sex characteristics is due to early weight gain hormones in meat and milk or what are called environmental estrogens chemical pollutants that resemble the female hormone estrogen Delayed puberty a condition in which the appearance of secondary characteristics and physical growth do not being until ell after they have begun in most children 0 The usual treatment is to administer gonadotropinreleasing hormone or testosterone 0 Sexual Behavior Several studies have shown that children s rst sexual attraction occurs at age 10 Children have no understanding of sex but they do know that the are attracted to boys or girls This occurs well before gonadarche and is true for both heterosexual and homosexual attraction lt coincides with rising androgen levels due to the maturation of the adrenal glands further evidence that Freud s latency theory is incorrect In the developmental process sexual attraction is followed in order by sexual fantasy and sexual behavior 3 Adolescence Ages 1317 O The time of life between puberty and adulthood Most important issue in their life is selfidentity Because of their rapidly changing bodies the search for selfidentity rst focuses on body image and physical characteristics Selfesteem is generally based on his or her subjective views of physical attractiveness Girls are often viewed as sexual objects Masturbation For many the rst experience with orgasm occurs during masturbation A lot of guilt is tied to it Patterns of Sexual Initiation Petting noncoital sexual contact below the waist Necking erotic physical contact above the waist kissing touching breasts The average age at which teens rst have sexual intercourse has been dropping and is now about 16 oryounger There is only a small difference between boys and girls Besides sexual pleasure reasons for sex include desire for intimacy and an increase in social status Men generally have more pleasure and less guilt Some teens post pone having sex till marriage for religious reasons Peer Pressure Expectations by one s peer group about how one is suppose to behave The more friends a teen has who are sexually active the more likely they will engage in sex 0 Emerging Adulthood Ages 1825 0 O O The median age for marriage is 26 for women and 28 for men Extended period of being a single adult that occurs between adolescence young adult hood Freedom from parental restraints and more opportunity for privacy than in the past By age 20 75 of emerging adults are sexually experienced and having sex regularly and most emerging adults have had multiple serial sexual partners during their short lifetimes Hooking up nonrelationship sex without any commitment Serial monogamy the practice of having a series of monogamous sexual relationships 0 Young Adulthood Ages 2639 0 By age 44 95 of Americans have engaged in premarital sex 0 Marriage I The frequency of sex during the rst year of marriage is usually high I Sex has to compete with other demands such as careers children I Sex becomes less exciting sometimes done at the same time every day at night for couples with children 0 Living Together cohabitation I 23 of couples who marry live together outside of marriage I The increase in the number of couples living together may be one reason for the older age of couples today who marry for the rst time I Living together can be a test or trial period before marriage I Studies have found that couples living together before marriage have more marriage instability I Divorce rate is higher for those that live together before marriage and who have children before marriage 0 Extramarital Sex In supposedly monogamous marriages I In Americans the prevalence of an affair is high I Men may solely have sexual affairs whereas women most likely have emotional affairs as well I Women are more concerned about emotional in delity than men 0 Extramarital Sex Consensual arrangements I Open marriages a marital relationship in which the couple agrees that it is permissible to have sexual relations outside of marriage I Swinging A type of open marriage relationship in which a couple has extramarital relations together with other couples I Couples get together by answers ads in newspapers 0 Men often watch the women have sex with each other 09 Middle Ages Ages 4059 0 Frequency of Sex A recent nationally representative survey found hat about 56 of men and 70 of women aged 5070 years had engaged in sexual intercourse in the past year While there is a decline as people get older it is gradual There are many more single women than single men Older women have a harder time nding partners than older men 0 Female Sexuality Physical Changes with Age 0 Male Menopause the term for woman s last menstrual cycle The changes that occur in the few years that precede and the rst year that follows is called the climacteric 45 of women experience menopause between 44 and 55 with an average of age 51 Women will experience hormonal changes Hot ashes The loss of estrogen also causes the vagina to become thinner and less elastic with a marked decrease in the amount of vaginal lubrication during sexual arousal For many women menopause causes no change in interests in sex Sexuality Physical Changes with Age Men show a gradual decline in testosterone levels that begins in their late teens By age 55 20 to 50 of men have testosterone levels that are below the normal range for young adult men This decrease in testosterone will result in some physiological changes as men This is often referred to as andropause The changes include decreased sensitivity of the penis a longer time to become erect and a less rm erection shrinkage of the testicles less forceful ejaculation longer refractory period Some doctors advocate for testosterone replacement therapy 0 The Elderly Years Ages 60 0 In our culture people believe sex is only enjoyed by young people 0 Among people in their early 605 70 are having sex regularly 23 say sexual relations are satisfactory and as good or better as when they were younger The women to men ratio is unfavorable women outlive men Sexual problems are common erectile dysfunction Major factor preventing elderly from having sex is the lack of privacy if one is dependent on others for care Sex will probably continue throughout life if couples have a positive attitude about sex when they were younger and are healthy
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