Week 6 notes
Week 6 notes Psych 413
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lynette Walker on Monday November 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 413 at University of Washington taught by Kathryn Monahan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Development in Psychlogy at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 11/02/15
Psych 413 School and the Purpose of Secondary Education ch6 112 Evolution of Secondary School gt Origins a fairly new idea 0 Industrialization o Urbanization 0 Immigration gt 1920 0 First seen comprehensive High school education 160 days of instruction only 120 days on average was attended because of harvest season Attendence of secondary education saw a sharp increase from this point about 15 until the present gt 1968 o Lengthen school year to 180 days higher attendance rates gt Present 0 US 180 days 95 attendance rate 0 England 220 days 0 Japan 240 days gt High School Graduates and their enrollment in college 0 See an increased rate of this particular population of students 0 Highest among Asians signi cant difference then white black and nally Hispanic gt National Scores 0 The US scores worse now on Math Writing and Science than in the 60 s 0 Also worse compared to nearly all other industrialized countries Educational Reform Past amp Present Debating High School Curriculum gt 1950 Russia a huge competitor in space science and technology 0 US focuses on math and science curriculum gt 1970 students graduate into real world jobs with no relevant knowledge 0 Focus on workstudy programs 0 Career education gt 1980 0 Back to basics reading writing math gt 1990 ahead of its time 0 Critical thinking Higher order thinking 0 Capitalizing on student39s cognitive abilities during teen years 0 Criticism How do you measure it How can it be applied to other subjects gt 2000 nding a way to measure things 0 Standardized based reform assessing how much students learn the basic concepts 0 No Child Left Behind Law 2002 Every student should be at least at the set bare minimum to make a educational standard for learning Failed completely Education in Inner Cities gt There is an educational crisis that is prominent within innercity public schools 0 12 of high schools in America produce 50 of our dropout rates Not random 0 Caused by Concentration of poverty poverty becomes a central place for violence and less police control School becomes a scary place and when school is a scary place people care less about going to schooL Administrative Bureaucracy innercity school districts are larger with a higher population of students The bureaucracy is slow to move and nancially spread thin less effort spent on improving the school system Low school belongingness Students aren39t attached to schools The schools a pretty much built to house kids for 8 hrs so they don39t get in trouble Poorjob opportunities 0 the adults in the community often have poor quality jobs which does not encourage kids to get higher educations since they are less likely to achieve appropriate job opportunities that correspond with their education level School Structure does the size of the school matter gt School Size 0 Smaller is better 0 Ideal size of 4year High school Between 600 and 900 students total Why 0 Large enough where you can stand out not have everyone know you from the start 0 Small enough where you have opportunities in sports and other extracurricular activities within the school system gt Class Size 0 2040 students See no effect on achievement Exceptions this size would be too big for 0 Elementary School children Individualized instruction ie quotspecial edquot ESL etc Remedial education you don39t want 40 kids with behavioral problems in one room Most Common School Structure gt School transitions Plan Explanation 633 6yrs elementary 3yrs Junior high 3yrs High school 624 6yrs elementary 2yrs Junior high 4yrs High school 8 4 8yrs elementary 4yrs High school gt Any school transition is hard on teens and young children However the less transitions the more the kids achieve Cities are moving towards the 8 4 plan Which Type is Best gt Simmons amp Blythe 1987 0 633 vs 84 Those in 84 plan did best in all areas academically selfesteem levels psychosocial development etc Example Self Esteem K 8 Girls 84 plan and Junior high Girls 633 plan self esteem compared K 8 make 1 transition from 8th grade to 9th gradeHigh school Selfesteem increased from point of transition JHS girls make two transitions 7th grademiddle school and again for 10th gradeHigh school Signi cant decrease in selfesteem Why 0 Transition to a new school itself is stressful o The nature of the difference between elementary and middle school Stageenvironment mismatch Jackie Eccles et al 1993 Stageenvironment mismatch gt The developmental needs of the teens and environment are not well matched The environment does not ful ll the needs for autonomy and close nonfamilial relationships 0 Environment changes Elementary 1 class all day knew teacher well small class size more freedom stronger teacherstudent trust Middle 6 classes a day loose relationship with teacher 3040 people teachers are more punitive less warmth more control detention suspension 0 Climate changes Teacher is more suspecting of students Teacher has lower selfef cacy con dence in their teaching abilities in part because of negative stereotypes about teens Perceived Teacher Support and Students Intrinsic Valuing of Math gt comparing teacher selfef cacy of 6th grade math teacher and 7th grade math teacher 0 When both 6th and 7th grade teacher have low selfef cacy lowlow Constant decrease from fall 6th grade to spring 7th of child39s intrinsic valuing of math 0 6th grade teacher low and 7th grade teacher high in selfef cacy low high Decrease of value from fall 6th to spring 6th and then increase during 7th grade 0 6TH high and 7th low highlow lncrease from fall 6th to spring 6th then signi cant decrease in value during 7th grade 0 6th high and 7th high highhigh Constant increase and higher starting value from fall 6th to spring 7th How Should Schools Be Organized gt Should schools use tracking 0 Tracking separating students by academic ability AP math track beginner s math track Often done in high school Bene ts Positive for hightracked students get better teachers and curriculum Finely tuned classes for student ability o Making the class curriculum student ability speci c reduces student frustration Costs Di erential Public Education making decisions on who gets educated at what level Enabling some and possibly disabling others Worse for lowtracked students very clearly identi ed as not smart o Worse teachers higher dropout rates less student engagement selfful lling prophecy they won t be able to excel out of the lowtrack Class Climate gt To get better student engagement and higher achievement 0 Should have a positive studentteacher relationship 0 A moderate degree of structure and high student involvement 0 Teacher support balanced responsiveness and demandingness and independent work Zero Tolerance in Schools gt gt gt gt A response to increased drug use and violence in the school system Any infraction will be met with suspension no exceptions Actual incidence of school violence 0 Homicidesuicide incidence is less than 1 on school grounds 0 Kids get into the most violent activity right afterschool 3pm to 6pm Problems 0 Suspension leads to increased risk of dropping out decreases student engagement 0 Policy is inconsistently applied not universal 0 Problem behaviors are rare policy used on lesser problem behaviors o Linked with kids ending up in the justice system