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Week 2 notes for Exam 3. 10-27 and 10-29

by: Madison Krasko

Week 2 notes for Exam 3. 10-27 and 10-29 NUTR 400 L21

Marketplace > University of New Hampshire > Biological Sciences > NUTR 400 L21 > Week 2 notes for Exam 3 10 27 and 10 29
Madison Krasko
Nutrition Health & Well Being
Professor Jesse Morrell

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About this Document

I am not hired by the University, I am a fellow student in the class attending the lectures and doing the homework readings.
Nutrition Health & Well Being
Professor Jesse Morrell
Class Notes
nutrition, NUTR, Energy Balance, Obesity, healthy, Bodyweight, Eating Disorders
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Krasko on Monday November 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NUTR 400 L21 at University of New Hampshire taught by Professor Jesse Morrell in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Nutrition Health & Well Being in Biological Sciences at University of New Hampshire.

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Date Created: 11/02/15
Week of 10261030 Week 2 Notes for Exam 3 I am not paid by the University I am a student in this class taking my notes on the lectures and the readings This notes combine the notes from the lecture and the reading assignments Lecture 1027 Energy Balance Energy Balance Calories In vs Calories Out Positive Energy Balance Increase in Body Mass Consuming excess calories Negative Energy Balance Decline in Body Mass Consuming fewer calories Energy the capacity to do work Scientists measure energy in calories 3500 kcal 1 pound Energy out Total Energy Expenditure TEE 3 Major Components 1 Resting Energy Expenditure 65 2 Physical Activity 25 3 Thermal Effect of Food 10 1 Resting Energy Expenditure REE a quotcost of livingquot calories burned in your daily living activities b about 23 of energy out c also called BMR Basal Metabolic Rate Why would people have different REE s even if they are the same size Height lf taller there is more surface area and a higher metabolic rate is needed LEAN MUSCLE MASS the primary differential The more Lean Muscle the higher your metabolic rate 2 Physical Activity a High Variable b 1530 of energy requirements c dependent on intensity and duration of activity 3 Thermic Effect of Food a Also called Induced Thermogenesis b Amount of energy used to process food c Estimated 510 of energy intake Adaptive Thermogenesis Energy spent to adapt to dramatic circumstance change exampe illness trauma cold temperature over feeding NEAT Nonexercise Activity Thermogenesis Energy spent for certain movements Movements such as posture or dgeting Fasting decreases resting energy dependiture metabolic rate Resting Energy Expenditure REE accounts for the majority of TEE Measuringjnergy Out 1Direct Calorimetry measures body heat released 2 Indirect Calorimetry Measures Oxygen consumed and Carbon Dioxide expired Can then calculate calories expended 3 Stable Isotopes Doubly labeled water molecules Accurate but Expensive measures excreted water 4 Formulas estimation hundreds available REE TEE or EER Shorthand Method example TEE REE x AF x IF TEE total energy expenditure kcals REE Resting energy expenditure kcals AF activity factors F Injury Factor only if applicable need to know sex and weight Calculating REE Woman 09 x Body Weight in Kg x 24 Men 10 x Body Weight in Kg x 24 Determining AF and IF if there are any will be stated Remember Weight Stable individuals are in relative energy balance 1 Mike eats 2500 kcalday If Activity Level AL stays the same how many kcalday should he eat to lose a pound a week To lose a pound a week that s 3500 kcal If you decrease 500 calories per day 500x7 3500 The 3500 being lost woild make him lose 1 pound per week 2 Lean Body Muscle Mass The most signi cant predictor of resting energy expenditure aka basal metabolic weight Why is Body Weight and Composition Important Body Weight Body Weight is a traditional and easy health measure Various assessment tools height weight charts formulas Body Mass Index persons weightEKg Ratio of persons heightE Meters associated with chronic disease risk example lake 6 ft tall and 176 pounds 17622 poundsKg 80 Kg 72 in x 254 cmin 1829 cm 183 Meters 80 kg183 m 239 kgm JAKES BMI 0underweight Below 185 Ohealthy between 185 249 0overweight 25299 0Obese greater than 30 BMI Limitations Body fat distribution Body composition It doesn t differentiate muscle and fat Overweight VS Overfat weight only indirect measure of body composition body composition fat mass and fatfree mass desirable amounts of total body fat Men 624 Women 9 31 How is Body CompositLn Measured 1 Skinfold Thickness pul skin away from muscle and measure Error rate of 3 5 2 Bioelectrival Impedance Eectric impulses sent through body Error rate of 35 3 Densitometry Displaced fat Bod Pod or Wnderwater weighing 4 DEXA high end xray very accurate but very expensive and admits radiation used for bone health What about Fat Distribution Visceral Fat vs Subcutaneous Fat Visceral in abdominal muscle area around the organs Men more likely to have Subcutaneous In other Regions butt and thighs women more likely to have Unlike visceral fat subcutaneous is not linked to health risks subcutaneous fat is harder to lose Lower Body Obesity Gynoid Resist Weight Loss Upper Body Obesity Andriod Chronic Health Risks Hormona In uence Menopause Causes switch to Android weight gain Assessment CT and MRI can measure this Tape Measure waist circumference weight circumference circle at top of iliac crest simple but useful assessing central adiposity Centra Adiposity risk of diabetes heart disease stroke hype engon Recommended Men under 40 in Female ender 35 in Waist Circumference can be used to measure body fat distribution Energy Balance And Obesity Notes On Readings for 1027 Lecture Obesity having excess Body Fat Biology of Hunger Short Term and Long Term ways to regulate energy balance Short Term mediated by hormones and stomach pressure that are responsible for hunger Long Term different set of hormones adjusts food intake and energy expenditure to store fat Short Term Energy Balance Meals Decrease in energyyeilding macronutrients 39 Increase in hormones signaling low energy 39 Increase Ghrelin in stomach 39 Brain sends the Increase Hunger Sensation V EAT Long Term Energy Balance Increase Adipose Tissue V Increase Leptln II Brain decreases hunger 39 We eat less Stomach Grumbling Ghrelin the hunger hormone activates neurons in brain to tell the body it needs food Satiety the effect our food has on our interest in eating after the meal this works in between meals and effects when we feel hungry again 2 things that effect these most 1 Gastric Distention how much stomach expands 2 The release of hormones made by specialized cells in the gastrointestinal tract Nerves in stomach sense expansion and relay signals to the brain to send a feeling of fullness At the same time gut peptide hormones in Small lntestine Sl are made after nutrients in gut detected Legtin hormone made by adipose tissue Plays roles in body fat regulation and longterm energy balance lwhen fat stores increase leptin increases l when leptin increases signals are sent to the brain to suppress hunger Hunger and Appetite Hunger vs appetite Major Hunger biological need for food Appetite a desire for food Sensory stimuli fat gain in different in everyone Total Energy Expenditure TEE 1Basal Metabolism 2Thermal Effect of Food 3 Activity Energy Expenditure Basal Metabolism 0 Required to maintain essential functions to sustain life Needed for chemical reactions in our cells Maintains muscle tone 0 Work done by our heart lungs brain liver kidneys Depends on active transport of electrolytes and other nutrients in our cells o For most it s the largest component of total daily energy expenditure Thermal Effect of Food TEF Energy needed to digest absorb and metabolize the nutrients in food Activity Energy Expenditure AEE 0 Amount of energy one expends in physical activity daily 0 AEE most variable component of TEE Fat Free Mass and Basal Metabolic Rate quotLow Metabolismquot is not a cause of obesity Fat Free Mass FFM total body mass fat mass High FFM the higher Basal Metabolic Rate Skeletal Muscle is 3x more metabolicly active than adipose tissue obeses individuals sit on average 225 hours longer than lean individuals A calorie is de ned as the energy required to raise 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius


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