Week of October 26-October 30
Week of October 26-October 30 NSCI 3310
Popular in Cellular Neuroscience
Joseph Merritt Ramsey
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Popular in Neuroscience
This page Class Notes was uploaded by Joseph Merritt Ramsey on Monday November 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NSCI 3310 at Tulane University taught by Jeffery Tasker in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Cellular Neuroscience in Neuroscience at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 11/02/15
October 26 2015 Neurotransmitters Continued 0 SmallMolecule Neurotransmitters o 1 Amino Acids o 2 Acetylcholine I Systems 0 I Cholinergic System 0 II Autonomic Nervous System 0 General Setup I Sympathetic fight or ight I Parasympathetic rest and digest I AcH affects both I They work through a Double Neuron System with Ganglion Cluster of Cell Bodies in the PNS o Preganglionic cells project from CNS to the ganglion o Postganglionic Cells project from ganglion to PNS target sites 0 CNS sends information to PNS Ganglion which sends another signal to target destination 0 Sympathetic I Ganglion located very close to the Spinal Cord o Coordinated response I Pre uses AcH Post uses Norepinephrine I System 0 Preganglionic thoracic and lumbar segments send their extensions 0 Make AcH and synapse on ganglion o Postganglionic have a synapse with the preganglionic nerve 0 Once AcH acts on the Postganglionic nerve it releases Norepinephrine to respond 0 Parasympathetic I Ganglion located very close to the Final Destination 0 Immediate localized response I Pre and Post Ganglion use AcH I System o 3 Catecholamines Types 0 1 Dopamine Preganglionic most have origin in the Medulla Brainstem o This nerve in the Parasympathetic system is very long Postganglionic very short soma is in in extremely close proximity to the target area 0 2 Epinephrine More systemic o 3 Norepinephrine Creation Linear Process beginning with Tyrosine o Tyrosine o DOPA o Dopamine o Norepinephrine o Epinephrine Effects MoodStress Reward System Attention Coordinated Arousal Energy and Homeostasis ALL Catecholamines work through GPCR s Never Ionotropic o A Dopamine Metabotropic D1 through D4 0 B Norepinephrine a 8 o Epinephrine a 8 Systems 0 A Dopamine System 0 Sources I I Ventral Tegmental Area Heavily involved in the biological reward system Schizophrenia is linked to the Hyperstimulation of this region I II Substnatia Nigra Parkinson s is linked with the degradation of this region Deals with Motor Control and Coordination o Directly linked to the striatum I III Basal Hypothalamus o Neuroendocrine gland modulation 0 Affects different endocrine and neurotransmitter presence through the Anterior Pituitary o Synapse I Dopamine taken back up through the transporter channels I VTANucleus Accumbens Reward System 0 Dopamine reuptake can be blocked o B Norepinephrine System in the CNS 0 Sources I I Pons o The Locus Coeruleus regulates 0 Most important contributor o Dorsal Noradrenergic Bundle projections to cortical cerebellar including hypothalamus regions as well as the spinal cord I II Medulla o The Brainstem NE System 0 Ventral Noradrenergic Bundle to the Subcortical basal region 0 Overview I Involved in mood and arousal I SNRI s block Norepinephrine reuptake in the cell to treat depression 0 C Norepinephrine System Autonomic Nervous System 0 Post ganglionic nerve are involved not in parasympathetic only autonomic sympathetic 0 Does so through Beta receptors 0 4 Serotonin SHT I Process of synthesis begins with Tryptophan amino acid 0 Tryptophan o SHydroxytryptophan o Serotonin I Receptors 5HT1 5HT7 0 But 5HT4is not in the brain 0 And 5HT3 is Ionotropic I Systems 0 A Serotonin System 0 Neuropeptides 0 Overview I All Neuropeptides use GPCR no known Ionotropic Receptors for Neuropeptides I The PNS System in the Gut and the Hypothalamus have been studied the most for Neuropeptides I Hypothalamic Cells have both Neuroendocrine and Neurotransmitter effects 0 1 Pituitary Endocrine System 0 2 Autonomic System Neuron Projections Neurotransmitter so Nervous System 0 1 Magnocellular Posterior Pituitary I Hypothalamic signal causes the release of Neuropeptides directly into the general bloodstream I Produces o 1 Oxytocin parturition and milk ejection 0 Known as the love hormonequot I Induces pair bonding in species 0 Possibly involved with facial recognition 0 Patruition Child Birth and Milk Ejection I Relaxes smooth muscle cells in the uterus and mammary glands o 2 Vasopressin ADH antidiuretic hormone ADH 0 Controls blood osmolality o Helps uid homeostasis and hydration o 2 Parvocellular Anterior Pituitary I Neuropeptides are released from the Hypothalamus in a system 0 These can be inhibitory or excitatory o GnRII T RH CRH GHRH Dopamine o Eventually lead to the secretion of pituitary hormones from the Anterior Pituitary Lobe o Prolactin FSH and LH T SH ACTH Growth Hormone I System Breakdown 0 i Parvocellular Neurosecretory Cells are Synapsed with the Hypothalamus 0 ii Hormones transport occurs in axons because these are packaged neuropeptides in the somas 0 iii The synapses regions communicate and hypophysiotropic hormones are released which ow through the blood down to the Anterior Pituitary 0 iv These hormone stimulate or inhibit the hormone production from the Anterior Pituitary October 28 2015 Neuroanatomy 0 Overview 0 CNS anything held within bone I Brain I Spinal Cord o PNS everything else outside bone I Spinal Nerves I Cranial Nerves 0 General I 1 Sensory Signal Enters the Brain I 2 Brain Communicates with the Motor Component Autonomic and Somatic I 3 Action Occurs o Sensory is Afferent Towards input and Motor is Efferent Away output 0 Anatomy 0 Figure Outline I Rostral I Caudal I Dorsal I Ventral I Posterior I Superior I Inferior I Anterior o Planar Cuts I Sagittal I Horizontal I Coronal 0 General Brain Outline I Brain Stem I Cerebrum I Cerebellum o Neural Development Overview 0 Neural Plate Disk Formation I Embryo made up of three layers 0 1 Endoderm viscera o 2 Mesoderm bones muscles 0 3 Ectoderm skin nervous tissue I Neurulation occurs in Ectoderm o Neurulation I Occurs in the first Three Weeks 0 1 The Normal Ectoderm has a Neural Plate o 2 The embryo begins to fold and the Plate becomes the Neural Groove o 3 As the Embryo continues to fold it comes over itself and the groove becomes the Neural Tube and the Neural Crest I Neural Tube and Neural Crest begin the real differentiation 0 Crest o Crest folds eventually branch out to become the PNS o This is the RostralAnterior section 0 Tube 0 Spinal Cord and brain develop 0 This is the PosteriorCaudal section 0 Differentiation of the CNS 0 Overview I Develops from Neurulation Neural Tube Cord Ventricles and Crest Spreading 0 Phase 1 Primary Vesicle Formation I This is the primary formation the lays the foundation for neural development 0 Occurs at the Rostral Front end of the Neural Tube I Forms three vesicles Sections 0 1 Prosencephalon Forebrain 0 2 Mesencephalon Midbrain 0 3 Rhombencephalon Hindbrain I Spinal cords end also forms 0 Phase 11 Secondary Vesicle Formation I Now the vesicles begin to take shape and form as their respective brain regions I Sequence 0 1 Prosencephalon o Quickly becomes three entities I A Optic Vesicles becomes optic nerve and retina I B Diencephalon becomes thalamus hypothalamus I C Telencephalon becomes cortex 0 2 Mesencephalon 0 2nd1 Differentiation brings about its shape and form I A Tectum Superior and Inferior Colliculus control motor and optic coordination I B Tegmentum dopamine reward system I C Cerebra Aqueduct continuing and connecting the ventricles 3rd in the Forebrain and 4th in the Hindbrain o 3 Rhombencephalon 0 Has two sections one more Rostrally locate and one more Cadudally and each have a slightly different appearance I Rostral o I Rhombic lips swell and eventually develop into the Cerebellum 0 II The Pons develops with its Neural connections I Caudal o I The Fourth Ventricle forms 0 II The Medulla takes shape as well present with Medullary Pyramids 0 Some functions I A Cerebellum 0 Controls movement and coordination 0 Convergence of inputs from spinal cord and cerebral cortex 0 Coordinated movement I B Pons o The quotBridgequot with 90 of descending axons from the cortex synapsing in the Pons o Relays to the Cerebellum I C Medulla o Somatic Sensory Relay 0 Houses some autonomic sensory and motor nuclei 0 4 Spinal Cord o The spinal cord mix of Grey and White matter is of utmost importance I Grey the horns ventral and dorsal and the intermediate zone I White columns dorsal lateral and ventral o Ascends afferent and descends efferent o The cell bodies for many CNS structures 0 CNS complete overview post differentiation I Sections 0 1 Forebrain Prosencephalon o Telencephalon o Diencephalon o Optic Nerves o 2 Midbrain Mesecephalon o Tectum o Tegmentum o 3 Hindbrain Rhombencephalon o Cerebellum o Pons o Medulla o 4 Spinal Cord o 5 Ventricles I Ventricles o Rostral 9 Caudal o Telencephalon 9 Diencephalon 9 Mesencephalon 9 Rhombencephalon 9 Spinal Cord 0 Lateral Ventrical 9 Third Ventricle 9 Cerebral Aqueduct 9 Fourth Ventricle 9 Spinal Cord I Divisions and Subdivisions up the body so Caudal to Rostral or Posterior to Anterior o 1 Spinal Cord o 2 Medulla o 3Pons o 4 Cerebellum o 5 Midbrain Tectum and Tegmentum o 6 Diancephalon Hypothalamus Thalamus o 7 Cerebral Hemispheres Telencephalon October 30 2015 Peripheral Nervous System 0 Organization 0 Somatic Nervous System I Skeletal striated I Voluntary control 0 Autonomic Nervous System I Cardiac smooth I Involuntary control I Broken down into Three Components 0 1 Sympathetic ght or ight o 2 Enteric gut o 3 Parasympathetic rest and digest o The Four Properties for Assessing o Spinal Cord Construction 0 4 Divisions exist I 1 Central Neck C1C8 I II Thoracic Mid Back T1T12 I III Lumbar Lower Back L1 L5 I IV Sacral Tailbone 5155 and Coc1 o Spinal Nerves I Made up of Dorsal Roots and Ventral Roots meeting up in the Cord o Dorsal Roots sensory a erent o Ventral Roots motor e erent o Spinal Cord I Once the nerves reach the cord we have three main parts for Grey Matter 0 1 Dorsal Horn 0 Sensory afferent nerves 0 The nerve ending are in the periphery o 2 Ventral Horn 0 Motor efferent axons are present 0 Innervate on Striated muscle in the body 0 3 Intermediolateral Columns 0 Thoracic segments I There are also important parts for White Matter 0 1 Most of the Columns except the one above 0 Dorsal Ventral Lateral and VentroLateral o 2 Ascending sensory descending Motor 0 Once they are in the CNS they are Grey Matter I Spinal Ganglia o Dorsal root ganglia house cell bodies for sensory input 0 All the PNS sensory nerves have their bodies here 0 These are Pseudounipolar Cells I So their body is in the Ganglion but their connections occur in the grey matter region where they are synapsed 0 Observations to Consider I Second Order Neurons 0 These are the connections to the primary sensory neurons whose bodies are in the ganglion 0 Some eventually innervate on Medulla 0 Many begin at the ganglion and enter the spinal cord I Columns 0 Dorsal Columns up and a erent o Ventral Columns down and e erent I Autonomic Example 0 Preganglionic nerves in the thoracic section 0 These cell bodies are in the intermediate lateral zone I Sectional Swellings o The Cervical and lumbar regions are swollen out due to the large number of nerves from the arms and legs huge volume 0 Grey matte sections 0 Autonomic Motor System Somatic will be discussed in more depth in the discussion on systems 0 Ganglionic Synapses I Parasympathetic Preganglionic neuron synapses occur are present in Cranial and Sacral Regions I Sympathetic Preganglionic Neurons are present throughout the Lumbar and Thoracic regions 0 Norepinephrine released as the transmitter to the synapse 0 Then epinephrine from the adrenal can be released as a hormone to the body 0 Somatic vs Autonomic Nerves Sensory Systems 0 Broad Overview of Systems 0 Common Organization I Sensory Receptors are Unique 0 Transduction occurs on these receptors physical stimuli become electrical signals o Epithelial Cells in Visual Auditory and Gustatory o Neurons in Somatic Sensory and Olfactory o Encoding Breakdown I 1 Modality what type I 2 Intensity what s the magnitude I 3 Duration how long I 4 Location where on the body 0 Neural Encoding I Physical Properties are turned into an electrical AP I This is a binary process but the combination of binary signals creates a complicated mix 0 A closer look at Modality 0 Example Receptors I Somatic Sensory on the Skin I Photosensitive in the Eyes I Auditory Pressure Sensors in the Ears o Divisions I Five Major Modalities o 1 Touch 0 2 Hear 0 3 Taste 0 4 See 0 5 Smell I Submodalities exist too 0 Eg Touch can consist of Pain Temperature and Pressure 0 Specific Receptors I 1 Vision photoreceptors I 2 Audition mechanoreceptors I 3 Somatic Sensation mechanoreceptors thermoreceptors and nocireceptors I 4 Taste chemoreceptors I 5 Smell chemoreceptors I 6 Proprioception chemoreceptors mechanoreceptors and nocireceptors 0 Each modality has a specific and discrete system and pathway I The Subnuclei of the Thalamus is a common relay point I After this relay they terminate in particular regions of the Cortex 0 Specific Systems 0 1 Somatic Sensory I Overview 0 Skin and Joints 0 Submodalities o A Touch Pressure 0 B Temperature 0 C Pain I Assessing o I Modality Receptors o A Mechanoreceptors respond to touch the pressure I Pacinian Corpuscles Meissner Corpuscles nerve ending are covered and surrounded by gelatinous substance I Merkel Disk Pacinian Corpuscles more super cial not deep I Hair Follicle wrapped around not a free ending 0 B Thermoreceptors I Has myelinated superficial and unmyelinated deep for rapid and slow response I Both are branched and free at endings o C Noci Pain Receptors I Has myelinated superficial and unmyelinated deep for rapid and slow response I Both are branched and free at the ending 0 II Intensity 0 Threshold is important to consider minimal stimulus that elicits a response I The pressureheat pain is converted into an electrical signal I Consider Pressure 0 Each neuron has a trigger zone comparable to the axon hillock I Cell Body in Dorsal Ganglion 0 Receptor Potential is a Passive Charge I Any AP that is induced travels all the way to the Spinal Cord 0 Has two components to consider I 1 Frequency Code 0 The more intense a signal is the more it elicits AP s I 2 Population Code 0 The sensors begin to recruit other local neurons
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