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Week 5 Notes

by: Demi Chang
Demi Chang
Introduction to Textiles
Sun, Gang

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About this Document

Hi Everyone~ Notes from Lecture 12-14 are here! It includes the last portion of the fiber chapters before moving on to the study of yarns. Happy Studying! :)
Introduction to Textiles
Sun, Gang
Class Notes
TXC 006 Gang Sun Introduction to Textiles UC Davis Fall 2015
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Demi Chang on Monday November 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to TXC 006 at University of California - Davis taught by Sun, Gang in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Textiles in Textile and Apparel Management at University of California - Davis.

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Date Created: 11/02/15
TXC 006 Introduction to Textiles lecture Notes Lecture 12 3 Acrylic Fibers Manufactured bers where 85 of the long chain synthetic polymer has acrylonitrile units D Polymer Types 1 HomopolymerzPolymers that have 100 polyacrylonitrile and are highly resistant to chemicals While it cannotbe dyed it is a very strong polymer that looks like rigid cardboard because it lacks exibility it nears 100 crystalwily It is almost as strong as nylon 2 Copolymer Polymers that have another monomer added to acrylonitrile such as acrylic acid This way the polymer can be more amorphous and less crystalline than the homopolymer in order to increase its exibility 3 Graft Polymer Vinylpyrrolidone is the additional monomer added in graft polymers Vinylpyrrolidone also is able to create more amorphous regions than acrylic acid in copolymers D Macrostructure 1 Length Varies can be controlledchanged but acrylic is mainly staple bers 2 Crimp wavy due to mechanical crimping permanent crimps are achieved through bicomponentand highshrinkage bers For example highbulkyams are a combination of high shrinkage and regular bers D Microstructure 1 Surface Shape has some striation 2 CrossSectional Shape Varies dogbone kidneybean serrated round etc 3 Degree of Polymerization 1ooo 4 Crystallinity Varies mixture of crystalline and amorphous areas no speci c proportion of crystalline to amorphous 5 Intermolecular Bonds DipoleDipole and Van der Waals but no Hydrogen bonds so it is more hydrophobic 7quot Wwet and Dry Spinning DFiber Properties 1 Durability Moderate tenacity abrasion resistance and elongation at break 2 Aesthetics While it is similar to the positive attributes of wool bers it can be dyed into bright colors as wool cannot It has good covering power and bulkiness 3 Comfort It provides thermal comfort in cold weather because of its bulky fabric structures It lacks a synthetic feel and has low density and low moisture regain 4 Maintenance Cannot use hot water to wash deforms easily in wet than in drystatus under heating beta7d wetmust be avoided good resiliency and elasticity and moderate dimensional stability decreases when heat andor water is applied pills easily and is resistant to chemicals bugs and UV light 3 Modacrylic Fibers Manufactured bers or synthetic copolymer bers where the longchain synthetic polymer has less than 85 but at least 35 weight of acrylonitrile units except when the polymer is deemed as rubber It used for re re ghter uniforms because it is a ame retardant and does not combust Vinyl Chloride is used as a comonomer to prevent combustibility It is dif cult to ignite and will selfextinguish Note The halogens Fluorine Chlorine Bromine and Iodine but most importantly Cl and Br are the most important components in ame retardant polymers because they can quench the oxygen in the air and stop re D Modacrylic Properties 1 Durability It has moderate abrasion resistance low tenacity highly durable like wool good resilience dimensionally stable 2 Aesthetics Can be easily dyed good press and shape retention 3 Comfort Soft quick to dry Mechanical Ole n PP Acrylic Tenacity High Medium Elongation Medium Medium Initial Modulus Medium High Elastic Recovery High Medium Abrasion Resistance High Medium Stiffness Medium Low Resilience Medium Medium Toughness High Medium Thermal Ole n PP Acrylic Heat Resistance Low High Softening St Melting Low High Decomposition Medium Combustibility Medium Medium Sorptive Ole n PP Acrylic Moisture Regain Lowest Low CrossSectional Swelling Low Low Heat of Wetting Low Low Effect on Mechanical Properties Low Medium Oil Absorption Medium Medium Ease of Oil Release Low causes lingering odor in Medium sportswear Chemical Ole n PP Acrylic Alkali Resistance High High High Low Dilute Concentrated Acid Resistance High Medium High Low Dilute Concentrated Organic Solvent Resistance Low High Oxidizing Agent Resistance Low High Miscellaneous Ole n PP Acrylic UV Light Resistance Low despite being a geotextile High Electrical Resistance Low High Speci c Gravity Lowest Medium Lecture 13 3 Elastomeric Fibers A material at room temperature that can still be stretched repeatedly at least twice its original length and will return with force to approximate original length upon immediate release of the stretch Elastomeric bers include Rubber and Spandex Fibers D Stretch Types 1 Power Stretch this stretch allows bers to have highly retractive forces and a base holding power to its elasticity 2 Comfort Stretch this stretch only has elasticity D Rubber Fibers Manufactured bers that is composed of natural or synthetic rubber Natural rubber can come from plant sources like the hevea tree which produces a weak rubber with a low melting point In synthetic rubber Vulcanization the crosslinking of hydrocarbon polymers with sulfur improves tenacity dimensional stability and melting point 1 Macrostructure A Size Can be as ne as 140 denier large diameter rubber that performs suf ciently 2 Yarn Type A Core with Covered Yam 3 Properties of Rubber Both Natural and Manufactured A Durability High elongation and elasticity low tenacity B Maintenance Poor resistance to oil sunlight aging perspiration and oxidizing agents It has low dyeability and moisture regain D Spandex Fibers A revolutionary manufactured ber where long chain synthetic polymers with at least 85 of segmented polyurethane While commonly known as Spandex in North America and Australia it is known as elastane in Europe An anagram on the word quotexpandsquot Spandex is part of Invista39s brand name Lycra which includes Elaspan Dorlastan Bayer and Linel Fillattice 1 Polymer Type Block Copolymer which exploits the hardness high crystallinity of polyurethane segments and the quotrubberyquot aspect of the alternating segments of polyether or polyester 2 Macrostructure A Size Varies between 205400 denier 3 Production Process Varies depending on the type of hard segment in the polymer but Dry Spinning is most common 4 Spandex Properties A Durability high elasticity can be stretched over 500 without breaking and returning to its original length continuously good abrasion resistance poor strength but stronger more durable thanrubber B Comfort Soft smooth and supple lightweight and no staticpilling problems C Maintenance Resistant to perspiration body oils detergents and lotions Polyether spandex is more resistant to detergents and mildew while Polyester spandex is more resistant to oxidation and oil absorption 5 Spandex Applications Spandex is usually used for comfort t apparel and clothing like athletic wear swimwear lingerie ski pants underwear and compression garments surgical or support hoses Mechanical Properties Spandex Tenacity Low twice as rubber Elongation High nitia Modulus Low half as rubber Elastic Recovery at 50 High twice as rubber Flexibility High Abrasion Resistance Medium Sorptive Properties Spandex Moisture Regain Low Effect of Moisture on Mechanical Properties Low Oil Absorption High for rubber Effect of Oil on Mechanical Properties Low Spandex High Rubber Effect of Oil Release High Thermal Properties Spandex Heat Resistance Low Softening 8r Melting Medium Spandex High rubber doesn39t melt Combustibility Medium Acid Resistance Medium Organic Solvent Resistance High Spandex Low Rubber Oxidizing Agent Resistance Low Spandex ozone Ultraviolet Light Resistance High Spandex Low rubber Microorganism Resistance Low polyesterbased spandex Moth 8r Beetle Resistance High Electrical Resistance High Speci c Gravity Medium Lecture 14 3 SpecialUse Manufactured Fibers Institutional or special bers that are used in textile products where their highdecomposition temperature highignition temperature high resistance to degradation by concentrated chemicals or when high initial modulus and tenacity is required Examples include High Tenacity HighModulus Organic Fibers Heat Resistant High Modulus Inorganic Fibers Chemically Resistant Organic Fibers for highly toxic chemicals and Heat Resistant Organic Fibers D Inherently FlameResistant Fibers A manufactured ber where the ber forming substance is any long chain synthetic polymer that ends with the speci c type and quantity of vinyl radical HZCCR2 It is used in re ghter uniforms and has low melting points It is often used in re ghter uniforms and has low melting points Examples include Modacrylic bers Saran Fiber more than 80 vinylidene chloride Vinyon Fiber more than 85 vinyl chloride and Vinal Fiber more than 50 vinyl alcohol D Aramid Fibers A manufactured ber where the ber forming substance is any long chain synthetic polyamide where at least 85 of amide linkages are attached to two aromatic rings The most well known aramid ber is Nomex meta aramid ber 1 Properties of Aramid Fibers It has a high decomposition and ignition temperature and is almost non ammable 2 Production Process Wet Spinning 3 Aramid Applications re ghter39s uniforms D PBI PolyBenzlmidazole Fibers A synthetic ber with no melting point and does not ignite It has a long chain synthetic aromatic polymer that has recurring imidazole groups as an integral part of the polymer chain 1 Properties of PBI Durability High tenacity and elongation at break high regain and ame resistant A B Aesthetics Can be pigmented 1 Production Process Dry spun and drawn 2 PBI Applications It is used in heat resistant apparel aircrafthospitalsubmarine furnishings and industrial membranes lters EgtSulfar Fibers PPS manufactured ber where the berforming substance is a long chain synthetic polysul de where at least 85 of the sul de linkages are attached directly to two aromatic rings 1 Production Process Melt spun and drawn 2 Properties of Sulfar Fibers High tenacity and elongation at break high elasticity and resistant to acids and alkalis moderate density 3 Sulfar Fiber Applications Filtration fabrics like membranes and papermaking felts rubber reinforcements and electrical insulation D Kevlar lParaAramid Fiberi This ber has the paraaramid or the 14 position more aligned and symmetrical while Nomex has the metaaramid or the 13 position not as linear and symmetrical 1 Properties of Kevlar High tenacity modulus and performance it is ve to eight times stronger than steel wire 2 PLchIction Process of Kevar Wet spinning 3 Applications of Kevlar parachutes bulletproof vests ballistic fabrics and composite materials D Carbon Fibers Heat resistant and high modulus inorganic bers obtained by carbonization of rayon or acrylic bers They have a tenacity unequaled by any other commercially available ber 1 P perties of CaLbon FM Excellent strength very rigid high heat resistance moderately heavy lighter than other bers high regain very biocompatible and it has a low coef cient of thermal expansion 2 Applications of Carbon Fibers It is used in composite applications like reinforcement bers in resins and metals bonegrafts and replacement for asbestos Mechanical Spandex Aramid Tenacity Low High Elongation High Low Initial Modulus Low High Elastic Recovery High Flexibility Low Abrasion Resistance High Stiffness High Resilience Toughness High High Sorptive Spandex Aramid Moisture Regain Low Low CrossSectional Swelling Low Low Heat of Wetting Low Effect on Mechanical Properties Low Low Oil Absorption High Ease of Oil Release High Thermal Spandex Aramid Heat Resistance Low High Softening 8r Melting Medium High Decomposition High Combustibility Medium Low Chemical Spandex Aramid Alkali Resistance Dilute Concentrated Acid Resistance Dilute Medium Low Concentrated Organic Solvent Resistance High High Oxidizing Agent Resistance Low High low to chlorine bleach Moth Resistance High High Electrical Resistance High High Speci c Gravity Medium UV Light Resistance High Low Microorganism Resistance High High


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