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by: Kristina Cowan

Notesoncellstructure.pdf BIOL1081

Marketplace > The University of Cincinnati > Science > BIOL1081 > Notesoncellstructure pdf
Kristina Cowan
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Notes on cell structure
Biology 1
Heather Wilkins
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristina Cowan on Tuesday November 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL1081 at The University of Cincinnati taught by Heather Wilkins in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Biology 1 in Science at The University of Cincinnati.


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Date Created: 11/03/15
Bio Exam 2 Notes Cell Structure  All cells have: - Cytoplasm – semifluid in cell (water, salt, other molecules, etc.) - Chromosome – contains genetic material - Plasma membrane – define separate cells, regulates what goes in and out of cell, phospholipid bilayer - Ribosomes – critical for making proteins  Phospholipid bilayer – hydrophobic tails facing each other, hydrophilic heads on outer sides  Ribosomes – proteins made, two subunits (one large, one small), attached to endoplasmic reticulum (ER – only in eukaryotic cells), OR may be free in the cytoplasm  Prokaryotic cells: - No membrane-bound organelles - Does have chromosomes, therefore has DNA - Often are bacteria and archaea – CAN be beneficial - Mostly unicellular - Cell wall – protective coating, keeps sturdy shape - Nucleoid – often confused for a nucleus, location of bacterial chromosomes - Capsule – a gel-like coating outside of the cell wall  Eukaryotic cells: plants and animals - Have a nucleus - Have membrane-bound organelles - Nuclear membrane/envelope o Has DNA o Consists of two bilayers (two of picture example) - Chromatin – loose in the cell o DNA and associated proteins o Coils into chromosomes – tightly condensed - Nucleoplasm – liquid - Nucleolus – darker stain o Has RNA o Puts together ribosomes - Pores – for enzymes to get in, and get other “stuff” out - Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) – two types o Rough ER (rER) – ribosomes on surface to give a rough look, glycoprotein modification happens in rER  Glycoprotein = protein with sugars, their shapes change in order to carry out their function o Smooth ER (sER) – NO ribosomes, lipid synthesis, holds calcium ions, metabolizes carbs (makes them), detoxes drugs and poisons in the body, molecules are also made here and get carried to the Golgi Body - Golgi – the post office of the cell o Stack of membrane o cis side faced toward the ER o trans side faces the plasma membrane o Stores, holds, and distributes, proteins and lipids  Vesicles help to send them out to plasma membrane o Receives molecules (pods) from ER, then they pass through the Golgi, and are sent out to the cell - Mitochondria – the power house of the cell o Converts chemical energy (carbs) to ATP o Double-membrane (the inner fold are called cristae) o Matrix – the inner liquid of mitochondria o Has enzymes for cellular respiration on the folds of mitochondria o Can divide (or bud) independently o Contains circular DNA of its own and also has its own ribosomes (in common with bacteria) - Cellular Respiration – carbs convert to ATP o Carbs (glucose) + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water + energy (ATP) o ATP – used for energy-requiring process in cells - Lysosomes – recycler of the cell o Small, spherical, only in animal cells o Contain hydrolytic enzymes to break down macromolecules o Uses broken down molecules for something else, or breaks down and clean molecules for something else (a new function) - Peroxisomes – helps break down hydrogen peroxide, makes it into water - Vacuoles (plants) – central and large, used to support the cell o Takes up a large volume of the cell o Consists of water, solutes, etc. - Cell wall – protective layer or second barrier, has cellulose - Chloroplast – site of photosynthesis o Producers – use solar energy and makes it into carbs o Double membrane organelle o Stroma – liquid inside o Thylakoid – connected inside, a stack of grana (resembles a stack of candy Sprees) o Have their own DNA and ribosomes, can divide independently (like the mitochondria) o Chlorophyll – inside the thylakoid - Cytoskeleton o Maintains cell shape o Helps move cell and organelles o Assembled and broken down critically o Types (small and large)  Actin filaments – actin subunits  Intermediate filaments – fibrous subunits  Microtubules – straw appearance, make up spindle in dividing cells, tubulin subunits - Microtubules – grow out from centrosome o Centrosome – two centrioles, tube structure with nine triplets in a ring o New microtubules sprout from centrioles (at a right angle) - Cilia – contain microtubules, has doublets around center pair - Flagella – contain microtubules, one flagellum per cell o Cilia and flagella move nutrients together o Microtubules in flagella and cilia interact with dynein to cause movement  Photosynthesis – conversion of energy (solar energy into carbs (sugars) - Plants, algae, cyanobacteria - Solar energy + carbon dioxide + water = carbohydrate + oxygen (this is the OPPOSITE of ATP, equation is flipped)  Endosymbiotic Theory - Eukaryotic cells evolved from interactions and engulfing of bacteria that produce ATP and photosynthesize - Support of this theory – mitochondria and chloroplast have own DNA and ribosomes and divide independently  Outside of the Cell: - Extracellular matrix (ECM): o Glycoproteins – collagen, proteoglycans, fibronectin o ECM proteins bind to receptor proteins in plasma membrane called integrins  Interactions causes movement or anchoring of cells (wrinkles) - Cell junction – neighboring cells interact, different types o Plasmodesmata – between plants cells, allow water and small solutes to pass o Tight – animal cells, prevents movement of molecules across sheet of epithelial cell o Desmosomes – animal cells, anchor for fibers in cytoskeleton o Gap – animal cells, small channels for water and solutes - Plasma membrane o Fluid mosaic – molecules not static o Marks boundaries inside and outside of cell o Regulates passage in and out of cell o Main molecule is the phospholipids  Polar heads – hydrophobic, face into watery area  Nonpolar tails – hydrophobic, face each other, fatty acid part makes hydrophobic core (barrier) o Embedded proteins, glycoproteins, cholesterol - Fluidity of membranes o Lipids and proteins move side to side o Solid at low temperature o More unsaturated hydrocarbon tails (double bonds) of phospholipids = more space for fluidity  More unsaturated tails – crooked appearance o Saturated tails – have a straighter appearance, more organized o Cholesterol  Warm temperature = more solid  Cooler temperature = more fluidity by preventing tight packing - Evolution of Lipid Differences o Species in environmental conditions have variations in lipid composition of cell membranes o Some can change liquid composition in response to temperature change - Membrane Proteins and Functions: o Peripheral proteins – only associated with one side of membrane o Integral proteins – within the membrane o Transmembrane proteins – peek out on both sides of membrane o Functions of proteins in the membrane  Transport  Enzyme activity – speed of reactions  Attachment to cytoskeleton and ECM, anchor  Recognition (glycoproteins) – communication, on the surface of red blood cells  Intercellular joining-junction  Signal transduction – reactions such as adrenaline o Membranes are selectively permeable  Water uses aquaporins to cross  Small uncharged molecules pass easily – hydrophobic, gases  Charged molecules do not pass easily because of hydrophobic core  Large molecules (like sugar), fold into 3-D shape, do not cross freely, need extra help


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