Chapter 10 Notes
Chapter 10 Notes HTH 100
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Heather Wright on Tuesday November 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HTH 100 at James Madison University taught by Dr. Goodman in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 210 views. For similar materials see Personal Wellness in Nursing and Health Sciences at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 11/03/15
Chapter 10 Drinking Alcohol Responsibly Alcohol is a chemical substance and a drug that affects both physical and mental functions Binge drinkingpattem of drinking alcohol that brings blood alcohol concentration to 008 gram percent or above in 2 hours 0 5 gt drinks males 0 4 gt drinks females Households with incomes over 75000 have highest drinking prevalence Households with incomes below 25000 had the highest frequency 1 Alcohol in the Body Chemistry and Potency of Alcohol Ethyl alcohol or ethanoladdictive drug produced by fermentation that is the intoxicating substance in alcoholic beverages Fermentation process in which yeast organisms break down plant sugars to yield ethanol and carbon dioxide Beers ales and wines the process ends here Distillation rocess in which alcohol vapors are condensed and mixed with water to make Proofmeasure of the percentage of alcohol in a beverage or strength of the drink 0 80 proof whisky is 40 alcohol by volume STANDARD DRINKamount of any beverage that contains 14 grams of pure alcohol 0 Beer 12 oz 0 Malt liquor 85 oz 0 Wine 5 oz 0 Shot 80 proof 15 oz Absorption and Metabolism Alcohol molecules are small and fat soluble Small intestine absorbs most of the alcohol Factors in uence how quick body absorbs alcohol 0 Concentration of alcohol in drink higher faster absorbs Amount of alcohol more longer takes to absorb Amount of food in stomach More food longer to absorb Pylorospasm Carbonated drink cause valve to relax and empty stomach s contents faster Alcohol irritates pyloric valve and can close the valve which causes vomiting Metabolism Weight Body mass index 0 Mood stress causes alcohol to absorb faster Alcohol absorbed in blood throughout body and them metabolized in liver where it is converted to acetaldehydetoxic chemical that can cause nausea and vomiting and liver damage by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase Then acetaldehyde is oxidized to acetate and carbon dioxide and water then excreted through urine and or sweat GOO GOO Breakdown occurs at about 05 ounce per hour Blood Alcohol Concentration Blood alcohol concentrationratio of alcohol to total blood volume 0 O O O 0 Measures physiological and behavioral effects of alcohol BAC depends on weight body fat water content in body tissues concentration of alcohol rate of consumption and volume Women tend to have more body fat less water less alcohol dehydrogenase and hormonal differences than men so they will become drunk faster BAC 002 person feels slightly relaxed and in a good mood BAC 005 relaxation increases some motor impairment and willingness to talk BAC 008 euphoric and more motor impairment BAC 010 depressant effects of alcohol drowsiness loss of judgment BAC 035 lose consciousness Learned behavioral toleranceability of heavy drinkers to modify behavior so they appear to be sober even when they appear to be sober even when they have high BAC levels 2 Alcohol and Your Health Short term effects 0 O Occur within CNS by depressing functions such as decrease respiratory rate pulse rate and blood pressure Diuretic which causes a lot of urinary output Dehydrationloss off water from body tissues Hangovermoming after a drinking spree headache muscle aches upset stomach anxiety depression diarrhea and thirst Congener sforms of alcohol that are metabolized slowly than ethanol and are more toxic Alcohol injuriesincreases in injuries from overdoses swimming boating house fires and suicide Alcohol and sexual decision makingunlikely to use safe sex and highrisk sexual activity Alcohol and rape sexual assault and dating violenceincreases rape sexual assault and violence Alcohol and weight gainalcohol has 7 calories per gram Alcohol poisoningdrinking large amounts of alcohol in a short period of time causing BAC to reach lethal range Symptoms are confusion inability to be roused vomiting slow breathing rapid pulse cool clammy skin and bluish skin Long term effects 0 Effects on nervous systemshrinkage in brain size and weight also a loss of intellectual ability Cardiovascular effectsmoderated alcohol consumption no more than 2 a day reduce coronary artery disease increase in HDL s good cholesterol too much can cause high blood pressure 0 Liver diseaseresult of heavy drinking and liver stores fat further sta e of liver deterioration where the liver develops brous scar tissue h last stage of liver disease associated with chronic heavy alcohol use durin which liver cells die and damage becomes permanent condition resulting from prolongs use of alcohol in which the liver is in amed can be fatal 0 Canceralcohol is a carcinogen which can eventually cause cancers of esophagus stomach mouth tongue breast and liver 0 Sleepincreases sleep problems 0 Other effectschronic in ammation of pancreas block calcium impairs immunity Alcohol and Pregnancy 0 Teratogenic causes birth defects 0 Alcohol passes through placenta increasing chances of mental health and learning disabilities 0 Greatest threat in rst trimester when brain is developing rapidly 0 Fetal alcohol syndromebirth defect involving physical and mental impairment that results from the mother s alcohol consumption during pregnancy 3 Alcohol Use in College Binge drinking drinking more than 5 drinks for men and 4 drinks for women in 2 hours Reasons cope with stress boredom anxiety pressures by academic and social demands 35 of college students who drank later did something they regret or 30 forgot what they did Alcohol can negatively impact academics Students who believe tat their parents approve of their drinking are more likely to drink and students who drank heavily in high school are more likely to drink more Pregamingdrinking heavily at home before going out to an event or other location To help avoid cost of drinks socialize enhance male bonding Men are more likely to participate in drinking games Campus communities with a large number of bars and alcohol outlet have a higher rate of binge drinking Drunkorexiacolloquial term to describe the combination of disordered eating excessive physical activity and heavy alcohol consumption Drinking and binge drinking causes problems like assault rape sleep problems and academic problems Efforts to reduce drinking banning alcohol on campus or at events banning advertisement of alcohol dry house fraternity motivational interviewing nonjudgmental approach to work with students to change behavior web intervention in educating about alcohol 4 Drinking and Driving Drinking and driving has decreased but it is still a serious problem Reasons in decrease 0 Laws raise drinking age Stricter law enforcement Laws prohibiting underage from drinking Increase car safety Educational programs 0 Zero tolerance laws for driving while intoxicated More likely to occur from 900 pm to 600 am and on the weekends 5 Ethnic Differences in Alcohol Use and Abuse is the most widel used drugs drink more than men high rate of alcohol use and discourage women from drinking have low ratesocial and cultural in uences Also some have a genetic predisposition that may decrease due to a negative side effect from drinking 6 Abuse and Dependence use of alcohol in a way that interferes with work school or personal relationships or that entails violence of the law condition in which personal and health problems related to alcohol use are severe and stopping alcohol use results in withdrawal symptoms craving loss of control tolerance and psychological dependence Alcoholics have a hard time recognizing and admitting the existence of a problem because the fear of being labeled as a problem drinker Causes of alcohol abuse and alcoholism 0 Biological and family factorsgenetics can increase chances of alcoholism 0 Social and cultural factors drinking to dull pain of a loss or emotional problem Drinking in family can in uence Social and peer pressures can increase drinking Women tend to be alcoholics at later ages and get addicted faster and have increase risk with long term effects than men 0 Higher risk women are unmarried and living with partner in 20 s or early 30 s or have a husband or partner that drinks heavily Alcohol and prescription drugs can cause problems such as unconsciousness respiratory depression death Alcoholism can affects family friends and roommates Children in dysfunctional families assume at least one role 0 Family herotries to be good 0 Scapegoatmisbehaves to draw attention away from the primary problem 0 Lost child passive and withdraws form upsetting situations 0 Mascotdisrupts tense situations by providing comic relief Children in alcoholic families have to deal with stress anxiety and embarrassment and can be victims of violence abuse neglect or incest Codependents try to cover up for the addicted person with excuses Alcohol related costs are high with health insurance criminal justice costs treatment costs and lost productivity 0 O O O 00000 O 7 Treatment and Recovery Low treatment utilization Inability or unwillingness to admit to an alcohol problem Social stigma with alcoholism Potential loss of income Inability to pay for treatment Breakdowns in referral and delivery systems Failure of the medical establishment to recognize alcoholic symptoms Detoxificationprocess by which addicts end their dependence on a drug Withdrawal symptoms include hyerexcitability confusion agitation sleep disorders convulsions tremors depression headaches seizures Delirium Tremensstate of confusion delusions and agitation brought on by withdrawal from alcohol Family s role in recovery can be interventionplanned confrontation with the alcoholic that involves family members and friends assisted by substance abuse counselors Treatment Programs 0 0 Private treatment facilitiesphysical exam to determine whether underlying medical problems will interfere with treatment I 36 weeks I Cost several thousand dollars with help of some insurance programs Therapyfamily therapy individual therapy and group therapy I Medication I Support groups alcoholic anonymousorganization whose goal is to help alcoholics stop drinking including auxiliary branches such as Al Anon helping adult relatives and friends of alcoholics understand the disease and Alateen adolescents living with alcoholic parents by teaching that they are not at fault for their parents problems Relapse over half resume drinking within 3 months of treatment 0 Treatment aims at not only trying to get them to stop but break a pattern of behavior Important to identify triggers that cause drinking Effective in recovery programs they must offer an increase in selfesteem and resume personal growth