Art History 1 Week of 3/22/16
Art History 1 Week of 3/22/16 ARTS 1710
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by CathrynBayes on Sunday March 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARTS 1710 at Auburn University taught by Karen Sonik in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 119 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Art History I in Art at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/27/16
Mycenae 3/22/16: Mycenaean Culture Continued Reconstruction of Mycenae ● Cyclopean Masonry : massive rough stones that have been levered/stacked into place without mortar; named because the monuments were so large, it was as if they could only have been built by mythical cyclops/giants ○ Implied huge wealth and power; was used to fortify cities and intimidate enemies ● Lion Gate: ca 1250 BCE; famous example of cyclopean masonry, features a relieving triangle with what appears to be two lions ● Lion Gate Hattusa : Hittite capital in Anatolia ca. 13501200 BCE; just like in Mycenae, lions are used as a sort of gateway guardian ● Tholos Tombs: AKA beehive tombs. First became popular in 1600 BCE, but didn’t become the dominant over shaft graves until 1250. Built from smoothed stones primarily around Mycenae. Made up of dromos (long approach), stomion (large tomb entrance), thalamos (burial chamber), and the beehive/conical roof (corbelled vault) ● Treasury of Atreus: amous Tholos tomb built circa 13001250 BCE; excavated by Schliemann. Empty space indicative of a relieving triangle that has since been lost ○ Named for the mythological king Atreus; possibly referred to as a treasury because there was once a large amount of grave goods that have since been lost ○ The Cursed House of Atreus:Greek Mythological Background ● Tantalus sacrificed his son Pelops to the gods; they were offended and cursed him, at the same time they resurrected Pelops. Pelops betrayed and murdered his friend Myrtilos, resulting in another curse on the family. Atreus and his brother Thyestes fight for years, resulting in a false reconciliation dinner at which Atreus serves Thyestes his two sons for dinner; the house is then cursed for a third time. Atreus has two sons, Menelaus (married to Helen of Troy) and Agamemnon (who sacrifices his daughter Iphigenia for good winds before going to war; is later murdered by his wife Clytemnestra). Basically, the whole family is a mythological mess Mycenaean Pottery: ● Kraters: tall vases used to store and transport water/wine ● Pictorial Style 14001150: red or brown on buff; chariot scenes, nature scenes, departure scenes. Early attempts at perspective ○ Warrior Vase: Krater ca 1200 BCE from Mycenae, 40.6 cm height, depicts war scene ○ Chariot Krater:ca. 13001250 BCE, found at an art market, 41.6 cm height, departure scene that is an early example of perspective with schematic figures End of the Mycenaean Period ● Ca. 12001000 BCE: massive destruction across the Mediterranean and the Near East ● On Greek Mainland: Pylos is violently destroyed; Athens is sacked and parts near the acropolis are destroyed; an earthquake hits Mycenae and Tiryns, though the area continue to be occupied into the 11th century Potential Causes of Mycenae Destruction: ● Civil Wa “Seven Against Thebes” Myth ● Invasion: Dorian Invasion ? Possible entry of new Greeks speaking Doric dialect may have taken advantage of existing instability and taken over ● Natural Disaster/Climate Changeleads to inability to grow crops ● Attack by Sea Peoples: multiple dispossessed groups travel by water and survive by raiding cities Descent into the Dark Ages ● 15001100 BCE: Significant loss of technology, decentralization of power and community ● Late Helladic III (12001050 BCE) ○ Post palatial period; regionally diverse ceramic assemblages ○ Unsettled conditions die to decentralization; many people move away from the larger cities and back to the small villages they came from ● Octopus Style Pottery (12th11th Century BCE) ○ Derived from the Minoan marine ware style ○ “Stirrup” jars, characterized by the stirruplike handles; large size, used to store/transport wines and water The NeoAssyrian Empire 3/24/16 Assyria is located in the Northernmost region of Mesopotamia NeoAssyrian Period: 911612 BCE Neo Babylonian Period: 612539 BCE Achaemenid Persian Empire: 559331 BCE The Middle Assyrian Decline ● Late 13th century BCE: fullest extent of the empire. Assyrians consumed parts of Mitanni, Hittite Anatolia, and Babylonia ● Reasserts power under Tiglath Pileser I circa 11141076; declines end of 2nd millennium BCE as Aramean empire struggles against Assyria Notable Rulers ● Ashuranipal II (883859 BCE) ● Sargon II (721705) ● Sennacherib (704681) ● Esarhaddon (680669) ● Ashurbanipal (668627) Notable Sites: Nineveh (AKA Kuyunjik), Assur, Nimrud (AKA Kalhu), Khorsabad (Dur Sharrukin) Resources : sun, clay, mud, rain (as opposed to marshes in the south), salt, timber, stone (alabaster, limestone and gypsum) Qualities of NeoAssyrian Art ● Strong continuity with Middle Assyrian Period ● Greater power=greater influence : subject nations sent craftsmen and objects to Assyrian capitals as tribute; foreign craftsmen imitate Assyrian style but add in some of their local style ● Themes: Power, Mastery, and Ritual/Religion ○ Power: images of warfare, siege, brutality ○ Mastery: lions/beasts are shown being conquered ○ Ritual/Religion: King holds back chaos by appeasing Gods Assurnasirpal II (883859 BCE) ● Assyrian ruler that consolidated terrestrial gains of his father/grandfather ● launched military campaigns basically everywhere, but especially in the West, in Syria and Levant; built many fortresses along borders ○ Focus was more so on having influence (indirect control) rather than conquest (true rulership) ● Moved capital to Nimrud (AKA Kalhu): administrative center, palace site ○ Northwest Palace: completed construction ca. 860 BCE. Built atop a mud brick terrace 120 courses hugh and 28,000 square meters. Large open courtyard for public affairs, separate throne room for meetings, inner palace complex organized around small courtyards ○ Ideological statement: size/scale represents physical might and strength, materials show territorial reach and influence, and the art impresses and intimidates enemies ● Lamassu : stone gateway guardians built/sculpted to resemble hybrids of humans, lions, bulls, and birds. Identical within a single building, and at least partially carved in the quarry prior to being erected ○ Lamassus of Assurnasirpal II: ca 883859 BCE built at the Northwest palace at Nimrud, carved from one piece of stone, about 3.3 m tall
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