Week 5 Notes: Lecture 9
Week 5 Notes: Lecture 9 ARH 209
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Notetaker on Tuesday November 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARH 209 at University of Oregon taught by Walley A in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Hist of Japanese Art >1 >IC in Art History at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 11/03/15
ARH209 – History of Japanese Art | Lecture 9 | October 27, 2015 The World of Awakened Sages: Zen Buddhism Medieval Period 3 Origins of Zen Buddhism: -Started in India where Buddhists meditated through yoga; Bodhidharma was a Buddhist monk who brought the idea of Zen Buddhism to China which then spread into Japan Sudden Awakening: -Disciple teaching; experience/initiation of practitioner from studying under a master -Secular cultural activities: the belief that you couldn’t be awakened became popular and evolved into “mini” awakenings that eventually led to dharma awakening -Inspired new art and architecture -Zen Buddhism was exotic and inspired hope, new art, and architecture which became the “Japanese tradition”, but retained traditional grand Buddha halls *Jizo Hall (Medieval 3 Exam Slides, pg 2): -Introduced a new, more economical way of propping the roof up with structural posts -Open concept, tall ceilings, ornamental gable roof Daisen-in (Tacchu), Daitokuji Monastery: -“tacchu” = Abbot’s residence, but literally means “tip of pagoda” -Became a residence for retired abbots Hojo (Abbot’s Quarters) of Daisen-in: -Living quarters, guest spaces, patron’s room, and long rectangular Zen gardens surrounding building -Partial walls separate sightlines between the garden and the building *Garden at Daisen-in (Medieval 3 Exam Slides, pg 3): -The Zen garden is a “dry garden” (karesansui) with raked lines in pebbles/sand that imitate water; flat rocks symbolize ships and the other objects are supposed to make up a miniature world -Zen gardens usually incorporated a theme of travel across water which symbolized the journey to awakening -Garden is not to be physically entered, but entered with the mind as a form of meditation Whispering Pines: -An example of a Chinese landscape which Zen gardens are modeled after *Ryoanji Garden (Medieval 3 Exam Slides, pg 6): -One of the most famous Zen gardens -Abbot’s quarter was burned down, so there was another built elsewhere and transported to the location -Contains 15 large rocks; the large rocks are placed closer to the foreground and smaller rocks are placed in the back to give it depth and make it look larger than it is -Everything looks straight, but the garden and walls slope down towards the eastern corner -Walls are low enough to show the natural landscape as a part of the scene rather than designing vegetation within the garden *Juko-in Compound (Medieval 3 Exam Slides, pgs 4-5): -Abbot’s quarters (hojo) inhabited by warriors -Fully decorated with ink and gold painted wall panels; art very similar to Chinese images imported to Japan -Separation between rooms is very porous (top portion of walls made up of vent-type ornaments and wall panels can be completely removed -Central Room: -Most important ceremonial room due to the altar rooms placement within it -“Flowers and Birds of the Four Seasons”: made up of 16 sliding-door panels -Landscape paintings make up a singular panoramic scene circling the entire room -Misty landscape; plum tree is blooming which signifies spring; several other flowers; two birds perched on tree; ducks in river; more birds in the sky; small rock formations connect the panels and allow for seamless transitions if the panels separating the rooms are removed -Chinese influence: “crane” panel is almost identical to the crane panel in the “Crane, Kannon, and Monkey” triptych imported from China -Altar Room: -Contains a sculpture made in the likeness of the abbot residing there -When panels to the altar room are opened, the panels in the central room show that all the animals are bowing down to the sculpture -Panels below the sculpture also connect with the panels in the central room, but depict a more summery scene and include a lotus -The lotus is significant in Buddhism since that they grow out of muddy waters, representing detachment and purity -Patron’s Room: -Paintings depict the “4 Accomplishments”: Chess, paining, calligraphy, music -Paintings contain all four seasons; clouds suggest pure land and sacred space -Meant as a patrons’ waiting area to meet with the abbot (who would enter from the central room); paintings cause the patron to reflect on their accomplishments and think about their worthiness in the presence of the abbot -If separating panels are removed, the panels still connect seamlessly *Photos of these pieces have been posted in the Exam Slides on Canvas
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