Week 6 Notes: Lecture 11
Week 6 Notes: Lecture 11 ARH 209
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ARH209 History ofJapanese Art Lecture 11 November 3 2015 Tea Ceremony Demonstration Historical Background Sen no Rikyu brought the tea ceremony into common life in the 16th century before the 16th century the tea ceremony was reserved for people of high social status The tea ceremony has many different religious influences but is most heavily rooted in Zen Buddhism Originally tea ceremonies were only led by men but women have become more prominent today this transition happened because parents believed that teaching the tea ceremony to their daughters would make them more presentable for an arranged marriage Tea Tea used for the tea ceremony all comes from the same plant so difference in teas depend on how they are harvested cured and prepared the best tea retains all the nutrients possible Ornate Tea Bowl Example of the elaborate ornamentation and perfection of tea bowls before Rikyu Black Tea Bowl Commissioned by Rikyu designed to bring the tea drinker closer to the earth Summer Bowl Shallow wide mouth bowl used in the summer to release heat from the tea Winter Bowl Deeper bowl with an inward tapered mouth to trap the heat in the winter Tenmoku Bowl Only used in very important tea ceremonies since the bowl is very expensive and unique Replication of this glaze style has been attempted but no one can come close Sweets Tea used is bitter tasting so there are heavy or dry sweets served with it Sweets are served with a plate or paper and chopsticks They resemble crackers or small cakes Tea Caddy A vessel that holds the tea leaves separate from the water Tea Scoop Used to scoop the tea from its caddy and into the tea bowl Brazier A hearth in the floor that contains coal to keep the tea warm In the summer a portable raised hearth is used to allow the heat to dissipate more Tea Whisk Traditionaly made out of a single piece of bamboo The end is split into 108 spines to create the whisk portion Tea Flowers Zen scroll can be replaced by tea flowers partway through the ceremony where each patron can create their own simple arrangement to display from a variety of flowers The camellia is one of the most common and revered flowers used displayed in a tight or partially opened bud represents humility Thorny flowers or flowers with a very strong scent are some examples of flowers that are never used due to being too rustic or acting as a distraction from the ceremony Tea Garden Basic elements pathway into the garden made with long stones on the right side and several short stones on the left side stone basin and ladle to wash hands and purify oneself stone path to lead the rest of the way to the tea house mossy ground intermediate gates waiting area where the patron can get in the right state of mind for the ceremony Every tea garden is unique but they all include the basic elements Example of a stone basin shown is inscribed with quotall I need to know is sufficiency meaning you have all you need given to you by nature and your teachers water is replaced every 23 days and basin is cleaned of algae Tea Huts Usualy the tea room is the size of 4 12 tatami mats Entryway is a tiny cubby hole forcing patrons to crawl through and physically lower themselves to equal social status also designed for samurai to be forced to leave weapon outside the tea room Typicaly made of earthen walls and thatched roofs Wabi Sabi Wabi rustic plain subdued humble simple emphasis on spirit Sabi solitude emphasis on interacting with very few people General Tea Ceremony Information There are 3 or 4 prominent tea schools which practice the tea ceremony in different ways however there are many more schools as well The ceremony performed in class is the simplest form of tea ceremony bonryaku temae but the most complex can last 45 hours Every step and motion in the tea ceremony is scripted with ritual precision Bonryaku Temae Tea Ceremony Procedure Hands are cleansed sandals are taken off and participants crawl into the space periodically bowing There is a Zen Buddhist scroll hanging on the wall which the patrons bow to before proceeding with the ceremony calligraphy on scroll reads quotharmony wa reverence key purity sey tranquility iayku which are the four elements of Rikyu tea ceremony Patrons continue to bow with nearly every action during the tea ceremony Host uses a silk cloth which is carefully folded and used to purify the body mind and spirit as well as the utensils Water is poured into the bowl to both clean and warm the bowl bamboo whisk is also cleaned and spines are softened in the water Host adds tea to the bowl and whips it into a froth using the whisk before serving it Patrons bow to the host in thanks then bow to the bowl and turn it halfway around there is a front and back to the bowl before drinking the tea It is customary to slurp the tea to indicate how delicious it is When the tea is finished the bowl is turned back around and placed in front of the patron for the host to retrieve The host rinses the bowl and a second serving is then prepared in the same manner to be served to the next patron Once all the patrons have drank their tea they bow to the host and ask them to conclude the ceremony Host concludes ceremony by again cleansing the utensils placing everything on the tray and leaving Patrons leave by again bowing to the scroll then backing out of the tea room on their hands and knees patrons bow one more time before standing up outside the tea hut