RUSS 280 notes (3/24/16)
RUSS 280 notes (3/24/16) Russ 280
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Lensch on Sunday March 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Russ 280 at University of South Carolina taught by Prof. Kalb in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Intro to Russian Civilization in Russian at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 03/27/16
Lensch 1 WWI and Revolution; Alexander Blok: "The Twelve;" Sergei Einstein, "October and Battleship Potemkin" Lead up to the 1905 Revolution o 1905 Strike o 1905 Russian peasant uprising o 1905 assassinations of Russian Grand Duke Sergei Russia --> WWI in 1914 o Russia was not prepared o Homefront --> famine, desertion, lack of fuel o Nicholas I --> believes he is divinely anointed as Czar of Russia o Nicholas and Alexandra devoted to each other (love letters) o Nicholas leaves to go inspire troops and leaves power with Alexandra and monk (Rasputin) The Provisional Government o February revolution of 1917 o Czar Nicholas II abdicates power Trying to get asylum in England o Provisional government lasts from March 1917 until Bolshevik Revolution o Alexander Kerensky leads the provisional government and takes power o Provisional government did not end Russia's unpopular participation, in WWI, but led to great resistance Rival of the Provisional Government => the Soviets o SOVIETS => the Petrograd Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies o Soviets (councils) --> form all over Russia o During WWI St. Petersburg --> Petrograd (less German, more Slavic) o Army in Petrograd devoted to Bolsheviks --> promised an end to Russia's involvement in WWI The Bolshevik Coup Lensch 2 o November 7, 1917: "October Revolution" (Julian, old-style calendar) Bolshevik's stage a coup o Lenin, Stalin, Trotsky o Get Russia out of WWI o Peasants should own land o Workers should own factories Declaration of Bolshevik Power, October 25, 1917 o Getting out of WWI o Peasants get land o Workers get factories o Government that mirrors councils spread across Russia Bolshevik Actions o 1918 --> Bolsheviks end Russian involvement in WWI o Confiscate Russian church property --> Atheist o Take control of factories and land o Get rid of titles --> everyone called "comrade" o Confiscate property of nobility and persecute them o Cheka (secret police) established December 1917 o Change calendar and alphabet End of Romanov Dynasty o Nicholas II abdicated the throne after February Revolution Him and his family sent to Urals o Conditions worsened after Bolshevik takeover fall in 1917 o March 1918 family executed Resistance to Bolsheviks o 1918 --> Civil War o The reds (Bolsheviks) and whites (anti-Bolsheviks) o 1920 --> whites defeated o Bolsheviks left in control of Russia --> established Soviet Union in 1922 Lensch 3 Cultural Front o State recognizes power of artist to shape public opinion o Gorky helps save people --> create a dormitory for writers and provide food Help composers, artists, and scholars Save so many people o Soviets expect payback (something in return) o Poet Nikolai Gumilev was shot in 1921 ("counter-revolutionary spy") Warning to intelligentsia Alexander Blok and the Revolution o Ongoing concern from 1907 on about the relationship between the people and the intelligentsia o Blok becomes more interested in turbulence, between people and intelligentsia (poetry itself changes) o Blok accepts Bolshevik takeover (believes that they deserve it) Welcomes the destruction He is scorned by the people he grew up with Violence is justifiable in the light of Russian history; indeed, it is necessary