Chapter 15 Notes
Chapter 15 Notes SOC 1101
Popular in Introduction to Sociology
Popular in Sociology
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Reshetova on Tuesday November 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Goss in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at Georgia State University.
Reviews for Chapter 15 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 11/03/15
Chapter 15 Notes: Authority and the State Types of Legitimate Authority Political Sociology studies politics. Politics- power relations among social actors or people (interpersonal level, governmental level, or in between) Authority- the justifiable right to exercise power (also includes ability) If the rulers can persuade their subordinates that their claim to power is valid, then they have authority. Legitimate Authority = Domination Max Weber = three types of authority (claims to legitimacy) 1. Charismatic Authority 2. Traditional Authority 3. Legal- Rational Authority Charismatic Authority- authority that rests in the personal appeal of an individual leader 1. Example: a natural leader 2. Qualities might include: center of attention, responds to a problem, carries out orders to others, has no problem making decisions 3. These attributes influence obedience and loyalty in others 4. Having those qualities = Charisma (according to Weber) 5. Presidential Elections 6. Can be hard to pass on or keep (Weber) Traditional Authority- authority based on appeals to traditions or to the past 1. This type of rule dominates by virtue of age old rules and power 2. Leaders = designed according to traditional rules; obeyed because of their traditional status 3. Examples: Hereditary Monarchies; Ceremonies and customs in the Jewish Torah 4. Does not suffer from problems of succession 5. Has its own set of problems 6. Would not be adaptable or have problems adapting Legal- Rational Authority- the rules rule; a system of authority based on impersonal, legal rules 1. In modern society = the most extensive and prevalent 2. The rulers are subject to the rules 3. Example: Police officer arresting a person 4. Rules and Roles exceed people 5. Highly routinized (regular standard procedure) 6. Routinization- the clear, rule- governed procedures used repeatedly for decision making; Ex.- police officer’s process of detaining the offender 7. Rationalization- an ever- expanding process of ordering or organizing; Ex.- each step is rationalized to the extent that it is governed by considerations of efficiency 8. Legal- Rational Authority = attached to roles (not people) 9. Bureaucracy- a legal- rational organization or mode of administration that governs with reference to rules and roles; emphasizes meritocracy; Ex.- wanting to enroll in a course that you need but there are no more spots available; Ex.- the case of Cheryl Horsfall- was pronounced dead by the state of New York but was actually alive Characteristics of Bureaucracies Bureaucracies = want to make routine procedures efficient; provide order in a disorderly world Five Characteristics: 1. Structured Hierarchically (Contains a lot of levels) (Lots of people working in those levels) (Each level has different tasks) (Higher levels supervise lower levels) (High levels get more decision- making control) 2. Positions = highly specialized (Specialization [opposite of generalization] - the process of making work consist of specific, delimited tasks) (Individual Worker = has small and a related set of specific functions) (Taylorism [specific management] - the methods of labor management introduced by Frederick Winslow Taylor to streamline the processes of mass production in which each worker repeatedly performs one specific task) 3. Distinguished by its impersonality (Person working there is detached from the role she or he plays) (Meritocracy- a society that assigns social status, power, and economic rewards on achievement, not ascribed, personal attributes or favoritism) 4. Highly Efficient (Bureaucracies apply highly specialized and practical knowledge to specific goals and they do it really well.) (No Perfect Bureaucracies) (Ex. – the lady you complain to about not being enrolled in a class that you need may come up with a solution that leaves both he/ she happy) 5. An “Iron Cage” (Weber- bureaucracy is the “parceling-out of the soul”) (An allusion) (Weber- bureaucracy infects the human soul; it is an unstoppable machine) Obedience to Authority Invented by Stanley Milgram (psychologist at Yale) in 1961 Milgram Experiment- see how far ordinary people would go to obey a scientific authority figure Participants include: men- different backgrounds (were informed that the researchers were testing the effects of punishment on learning) “Teacher”(participant) gives shock to “Learner”; shocks increase with each answer that was incorrect; no one was actually receiving any shock; it was the tape recorder that the actor would set up before any experimentations would begin 65% - shocked people to the lethal mark Authority, Legitimacy, and the State (Weber’s definition) Power- the ability to carry out one’s own will despite resistance (Power- “all conceivable qualities of a person and all conceivable combinations of circumstances”) Domination- a special case of power; the probability that a command with specific content will be obeyed by a given group of people (Two Types: Domination by Economic Power; Domination by Authority) (Domination by Economic Power - Weber’s definition: control by virtue of a constellation of interests or by virtue of a position of monopoly; Ex. – John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil) (Domination by Authority – Weber’s definition: refers to a situation in which the will of the rulers influences the conduct of the rules so they act as if the ruler’s will were also their own; Ex. – obedience to U.S Government) (More Common: Domination by Economic Power) (Domination: applies only to domination by authority; Weber) State- a human community that (successfully) claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory, as defined by Weber (State: Weber states it in “Politics as a Vocation” a 1919 lecture) (Not seen is the threat of violence under any form of domination by authority) (Ex. – The Godfather; Corleone Family) Coercion- the use of force to get others to do what you want Paradox of Authority- although the state's authority derives from the implicit threat of physical force, resorting to physical coercion strips the state of all legitimate authority (Violence = people are not listening) (Example: National Guard killing students protesting Vietnam War) The International System of States Within African borders, not all states have kept a monopoly on the legitimate use of force. (Example: Congo, Sudan, Sierra Leone, Angola) Some states in Africa have rebel groups that try to fight their governments. (Examples: attack on “Arab Spring”; Hezbollah started armed conflicted with the government of Lebanon) (Hezbollah = challenge statehood) European States = fight over territorial boundaries (Examples: Austro Prussian War of 1866; Balkan Wars of 1912-1913) (European States = employed territorial monopolies on the use of force through history of conflict that merged into today’s borders) Bona Fide States = current European countries; not former Soviet Union or Yugoslavia International State System- a system in which each state is recognized as territorially sovereign by fellow states (Principle of Noninterference: has exceptions; Example = doctrine of preemptive war – Iraq 2003) (Territorially Sovereign States = Africa – products of United Nations, European colonization, became members of international system of states, no guarantee of monopoly on force in their territory) (Example: poor and oil rich Nigeria) New State Functions: The Welfare State Social Policies: policies made to meet social needs Disability, unemployment benefits, and old age: social insurance and th th pension programs ( began late 18 century and grew in the 20 century and World War II) (Keynesian Economics) Keynesian Economics: States (beginning with postwar years): attempt to extend political authority and coercive control over some territories; the people living in them and organizations that take resources through taxation Now States: concerned width social provisions: welfare states Welfare State- a system in which the state is responsible for the well- being of its citizens (Supplying: healthcare, food, outside the economy marketplace, housing) The Welfare State Development: 1. Theory One: The logic of Industrialization thesis- nations develop social welfare benefits to fulfill the social needs by industrialization (Example: take care of people who are not needed in the labor market: elderly, children, people with disabilities (Social Security)) 2. Theory Two: Neo Marxist Theory- how democracy and capitalism can exist together (Explains the contradictions between formal legal equality and social class inequality) Welfare State: comes to maintain private property and solve a conflict of people wanting that property that is held by small majority; “buys of” the workers (Example: New Deal (mediator)) 3. Theory Three: Statist Theories; state centered approaches highlights the role of state bureaucrats in making welfare state policies (Ties into: government bureaucrats) (Exponents of state centered approach – Edwin Amenta and Theda Skocpol; say that bureaucrats are responsible for making social policy) Citizenship Rights- the rights guaranteed to each law-abiding citizen in a nation-state Three Types of Citizenship Rights: 1. Civil Rights- the rights guaranteeing a citizen's personal freedom from interference, including freedom of speech and the right to travel freely 2. Political Rights- the rights guaranteeing a citizen's ability to participate in politics, including the right to vote and the right to hold an elected office 3. Social Rights- the rights guaranteeing a citizen’s protection by the state Two types of Social Rights: Contributory Programs; Means-Tested Programs Radical Power and Persuasion Steven Lukes: power is most effective when least observable Power – Three Dimensional: 1. First Dimension: seen when different agendas clash, conflict results, and one side wins 2. Second Dimension: more complicated; happens when the power is formidable that no conflict results from competing interests because one side is convinced it’s a losing battle 3. Third Dimension: Lukes’s novel contribution; power to prevent conflict from happening in the first place Wield Power that is not seen = shape the choice set Power and International Relations Soft Power- (hard power); power achieved through the use of cultural attractiveness rather than the threat of coercive action Democracy- a system of government wherein power theoretically lies with the people; citizens are allowed to vote in elections, speak freely, and participate as legal equals in social life Dictatorship- a form of government that restricts the right to political participation to a small group or even to a single individual Game Theory- the study of strategic decisions under conditions of interdependence and uncertainty Collective Action Problem- the difficulty in organizing large groups because of the tendency of some individuals to freeload or slack off Political Party- an organization that seeks to gain power in a government, generally by backing candidates for office who subscribe (to the extent possible) to the organization's political ideals Interest Group- an organization that seeks to gain power in government and influence policy without direct election or appointment to office Beyond Strawberry and Vanilla: Political Participation in Modern Democracies Political Participation- activity that has the intent or effect of influencing government action