Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment
Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment HIST 100
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Date Created: 11/03/15
Week 10 Notes 11032015 The European Worldview Transformed The Scienti c Revolution and the Enlightenment The Scienti c Revolution 15401700 Key development in emergence of modern worldview and modern world Emergence of science as such ie as both method and discrete body of knowledge Unparalleled explanations of workings of natural world Laid intellectual foundations for the Enlightenment Link between technological change and the tools that can be used 0 Telescope becomes important 0 Compass gunpowder lenses PreScienti c period the Earth was at the center of the universe and all of the planets and the sun revolved around Earth Geocentric views reinforced by religious views More and more Greek texts bring knowledge and familiarity into ancient scienti c and medical texts More and more of a divide between theology and reason Discovery of the New World provides thought experiments for mankind Nicolaus Copernicus 0 First major development in the Scienti c Revolution 0 He was an astronomer motivated by the calendar and its relationship with the stars 0 First major work of revolution published by him 0 Makes a very powerful case for the heliocentric conception of the universe Sun is at the center of the universe Lacked some mathematical basics Work published after his death so there were weak spots to his work 0 The earth turns on its axis and revolves around the sun but the orbits around the sun are still circular o Tycho Brahe 15461601 0 Rejects heliocentric view and in its place comes up with geo heiocentric view of the universe Earth is still at center and the sun and moon revolve around the earth but the other planets revolve around the sun Johannes Kepler 15711630 0 Student of Brahe key gure in bridging the gap between two views of the universe 0 Three laws of planetary motion Elliptical orbit around the sun Speed of planets vary depending on their distance from the sun The magnetic forces between the sun and planets in uence planets orbita motion 0 Galileo Galilei o Telescopes gave him better picture of what was going on in the solar system 0 Sees craters on the moon Jupiter itself has moons going around it Popularized heliocentric ideas 0 Work Starting Messenger Pushes people to question the traditional model 0 Con ict with the Catholic church One of the key underlining ideas called a stellar parallax challenged the traditional heliocentric ideas 0 Any opposition to papal authority was viewed with great concern Galileo defends heliocentrism and that it was not defying biblical text His writings were sent to the Roman Inquisition to decide whether his works de ed the biblical ideals February 1616 Inquisition Committee deemed heliocentric ideas to be foolish and contradicts holy scripture Pope ordered Galileo to deny the ideas that heliocentrism was physically true could only discuss it as an idea 1632 Galileo wrote book laying out the two opposing views in the book her made an association between pope urban 8th and placed him on the side of the heliocentric viewpoint Galileo has to defend himself again a July 1633 concluded with him being tortured if he didn t tell the truth Galileo was found suspect of heresy because he believed that the sun lied motionless at the center of the universe 0 De ned scienti c method is starting to develop 0 Key gures 0 Francis Bacon 15611622 Empirical observation Inductive method Clearly and logical analyze evidence and base conclusion based off of that evidence 0 Ren e Descartes Deductive approach a Logical process of moving from one pure certainty to another a quotI think therefore I amquot As the scienti c revolution moved foreword the empirical observation became more prominent Emergence of state sponsored scienti c research societies 0 Governments recognition of sciences effect on improving mankind o Helps share ideas to drive scienti c innovation 0 Isaac Newton 16421727 0 0000000 Traditional eccentric genius First to build a practical telescope Color and prisms Study speed of sound Newtonian uid Coinventor of calculus Devoted unorthodox Christian Advocate of Deism there is some deity out there and important creator that started everything but then nature takes over Most important work in 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy Principia Revolutionizes science Three universal laws of motion a Describe relationship between any object and the forces acting upon it and the reaction it produces Universal gravitation Allows any calculations of physical movements in the natural world Classical mechanics 0 Absolute bedrock of physics and scienti c method that takes place with it all represented in mathematical form 0 Creation of science as we know it The Enlightenment 17001800 0 Attempt to extend Scienti c Revolution s insights on natural world to human society as a whole Supreme con dence in the powers of human reason Dedication to progress and perfectibility of humans and human society Rejection of dogmatism and inherited authority particularly that of the Church Highly critical of existing political and social order Salons were in the homes of wealthy families that were interested in science or social knowledge and host guests at their home and socialize with an educational edge discussing the most recent works Increase in levels of literacy 0 Learning and scholarship becomes more popular for a broader part of the populous Public coffee houses 0 Allows for freedom of socializing and thought More scienti c missions going out to various places of the world 0 Idea of a quotNoble Savagequot becomes key part of enlightenment 0 Thought experiment Provides atmosphere for intellectual discourse which is a key factor of the enlightenment Main characters quotPhilosophesquot o Thinker intellectual John Locke 16321704 0 Intellectual grandfather of the enlightenment o The human mind is a blank slate 0 State of nature where man is absolutely free idea that humans have liberty and certain rights on the basis of natural law but gather together in a society to form a government and protect property in return for losing some freedom David Hume 1700 s 0 Focused on creating a science of man 0 quotHuman nature is the only science of man and yet has been hitherto the most neglectedquot o Skeptic philosopher o Hostility towards organized religion Limits growth of all true knowledge 0 Voltaire 0 Celebrity gure during the enlightenment in France 0 Strong critic of organized religion Montesquieu 0 Comparative government and separation of powers 0 Man has liberty in accord with natural law 0 Best way to preserve liberty is to control government with a constitution as well as a separation of powers and system of checks and balances Absolutism was a form of despotism 0 Created an encyclopedia attempts to create a storage cite for all of human knowledge Encyclop die ou dictionnaire raisonne des sciences des arts et des m tiers Gotthold Lessing 0 German enlightenment thinker 0 Focus of intellectual principle of freedom 0 Less direct criticism of government 0 Religious tolerance 0 Living life isn t based on a static belief but on human actions 0 Adam Smith 0 British economist People are motivated by desire Founding gure of economy Invisible hand natural law of supply and demand The state must be hands off in the market due to the natural laws of the market 0 Competition will provide for the greatest public good 0 Limits of the Enlightenment 0 Not all were opposed to absolutism Reason and rationality would bring happiness to the society Very few considered rationality extended to women Believed men and women had very different social roles to ll Very few thought nonEuropeans were capable of enlightenment o Germans aren t as critical of an absolutist government 0 John Jacques Rousseau 0 General will man and nature is free but government is tool of those corrupted 0 Social contract required individuals subordinate their own interests to the public good 00000 0000 TAKE AWAY Scienti c revolution sees emergence of science as such and creates unparalleled insights into working of natural world 0 The Enlightenment seeks to extend Scienti c Revolution s insights on natural world to human society as a whole to create a quotscience of manquot 0 Scienti c Revolution and Enlightenment represent de ning moment in development of Western civilization and together mark start of modern era in intellectual and cultural life 0 Changes in intellectual and cultural life will in turn have huge impact on politics and massively contribute to dramatic socio economic change
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