Chapter 11 Notes
Chapter 11 Notes HTH 100
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Heather Wright on Tuesday November 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HTH 100 at James Madison University taught by Dr. Goodman in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 114 views. For similar materials see Personal Wellness in Nursing and Health Sciences at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 11/03/15
Chapter 11: Ending Tobacco Use • Prevalence of cigarette smoking has declined over past 50 years • Single most preventable cause of death 1. U.S. Tobacco Use • Cigarette use is linked to education: adults with a bachelor’s degree of higher are 2 X less likely to smoke than high school education • Highest rate of smokers among American Indian and Alaska natives 50% of regular smokers eventually die of smoking-related diseases Tobacco and Social Issues • Tobaco-growing states derive substantial income from production and governments benefit from cigarette tax o ADVERTISING: tobacco industry spends $24 million per day on advertising by recruiting new users. Target is young children and teens with candy, fruit, or alcohol flavored. Target women by saying it is key to financial success, thinness, independence, and social acceptance. Men targeted by appealing to masculinity. Minorities advertised Menthol. Financial Costs to Society • Annual cost attributed to smoking are between $289 and $333 billion • Huge economic burden of tobacco use Marketing Laws and Policies 1. Master Settlement Agreement a. Pay the states billions of dollars annually to compensate for tobacco-related care costs b. Limits advertising, marketing, and promotion of cigarettes c. Prohibits advertising targeting younger than 18, including the use or cartoons d. Limits advertising outdoor, on billboards, and public transportation e. Provide tobacco company internal documents to the public 2. Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act a. Limit color and design packaging and advertisement b. Prohibit sponsorship of sporting entertainment, or other cultural events c. Prohibits fee samples of cigarettes and smoking tobacco d. Prohibits cigarette and smokeless tobacco brand names on nom- tobacco items 2. College Students and Tobacco Use • College students target of marketing o Bars o Festivals o Events target at 18-24 years old • Stressful social and academic environment makes college students vulnerable to outside influences • Cigarette smoke in college students has decreased in recent years • College men have slight higher rates 17% (women 12%) • Full-time students less likely to smoke Why do College Students Smoke? • Relax and reduce stress • Fit in • Addicted • Fear of weight gain • Depression has higher rates • Smokers have higher levels of perceived stress Social Smoking • “Social Smokers” smoke when they are with people, rather than alone • ½ college smokers deny being smokers • Engage in increase o More alcohol use o Illicit drug use o Higher sexual risk-taking behaviors • Still lead to complete dependence and all same health risks Most Student Smokers Want to Quit • Want to quit smoking, continue to smoke throughout college • Reduce incidence of smoking among students o College engage in antismoking efforts o Control tobacco advertising o Provide smoke-free residence halls o Greater access to smoking-cessation programs 3. Effects of Tobacco • Smoking nicotine and 7000 chemical substances o 69 know carcinogens Nicotine • Nicotine-highly addictive chemical which is the major psychoactive substance in tobacco products o Colorless liquid turns brown when in air • Tobacco leaves are burned nicotine is releases and inhaled into lungs then absorbed into mucous membranes of mouth • Powerful central nervous system stimulant o Aroused alert mental state o Stimulates adrenaline o Increases heart and respiratory rates o Constricts blood vessels o Increases blood pressure Tar and Carbon Monoxide • Tar-thick, brownish sludge condensed from particulate matter in smoked tobacco • Cilia, hair like projections to help expel foreign matter by coughing, is impaired in smokers which paralyzes them and allows tar to accumulate • Carbon Monoxide-gas found in cigarette smoke that reduces the ability of blood to carry oxygen Tobacco Addiction • Nicotine is very addictive • Weight control • Cigarette advertisement • NICOTINE ADDICTION o Nicotine poisoning-symptoms often experienced by beginning smokers, including dizziness, diarrhea, lightheadedness, rapid and erratic pulse, clammy skin, nausea, and vomiting o Don’t get buzz o Genetics could play role in nicotine addiction • BEHAVIORAL DEPENDENCE o Psychologically dependent because nicotine “tricks” the brain into creating pleasurable memory association between sensory stimuli o Drinking and smoking o Coffee and smoking o Driving and smoking o Smell of cigarettes o Holding a cigarette is comforting • WEIGHT CONTROL o Smoking can help lose weight o Appetite suppressant and slightly increases basal metabolic rate o People who stop smoking eat more sweets o 9 to 11 pound increase Tobacco Products • CIGARETTES o Filtered cigarettes-most common. Suppose to reduce levels of gases but may deliver hazardous gases to the uses. o Clove cigarettes-40% ground cloves and 60% tobacco. Contain higher levels of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide. Eugenol, numbing effect in cloves that allows smokers to inhale more deeply • CIGARS o Cigars are more dangerous than cigarettes o Contain as much nicotine as several cigarettes o Nicotine is absorbed in the mucous membranes in the mouth • PIPES AND HOOKAHS o Pipes were ritualistic and ceremonial o Carries risk similar to cigar o Hookah originated in middle east, involves burning flavored tobacco in a water pipe and inhaling smoke through long hose o Marketed as safe but are because they do not eliminate or filter out harmful substances o Risk of infectious diseases with sharing of pipe • BIDIS o Bidis-small, hand rolled cigarettes come in variety of flavors o Increasingly popular with college students because viewed as safer and cheaper o Reality more toxic than cigarettes 3X more carbon monoxide and nicotine and 5X more tar than cigarettes • SMOKELESS TOBACCO o Just as addictive as cigarettes and contains more nicotine 30 minutes of smokeless is same as smoking 4 cigarettes o Chewing Tobacco-contains tobacco leaves with molasses, which goes in lower lip and teeth being sucked on or chewed to stimulate flow of saliva and release nicotine. Dipping-placing a small amount of chewing tobacco between the lower lip and teeth for rapid nicotine absorption ▯ Loose leaf ▯ Plug ▯ Pouch o Snuff – finely ground form of tobacco that can be inhales, chewed, or placed against gums. Snuff doesn’t require the user to spit frequently 4. Health Hazards of Tobacco Products • CANCER o Lung cancer leading cause of death o 10-30 years to develop o Risk of developing lung cancer depends on factors ▯ Amount smoked ▯ Age started ▯ Inhale deeply or not o Leukoplakia-condition characterized by leathery white patches inside mouth, which is produced by contact with irritants from chewing tobacco o Lag time between first use and contracting cancer is shorter for smokeless tobacco users than smokers o Increase in pancreatic cancer o Cancers of the lip, tongue, salivary glands, and esophagus • CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE o Over 1/3 of tobacco related deaths occur from heart disease ages arteries o Cigar smoking doubles risk of heart attack and stroke o Platelet adhesiveness-stickiness of red blood cells associated with blood clots o Person quits smoking after 1 year chance of heart attack falls by half and after 15 years risk of coronary heart disease is similar to people who have never smoked • RESPIRATORY DISORDERS o Breathlessness o Cough o Excess phlegm o COPD o Chronic bronchitis-inflamed lungs produce more mucus which they constantly try to expel which results in smokers hack o Influenza o Pneumonia o Colds o Emphysema-chronic lung disease in which the tiny air sac in the lugs are destroyed making breathing difficult • SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION AND FERTILITY PROBLEMS o Male can have erectile dysfunctions o Damage blood vessels, reducing blood flow to penis o Women increase infertility, miscarriage, SIDS, cleft lip, premature birth, low birth weight • OTHER HEALTH EFFECTS o Gum disease o Macular degeneration o Premature skin wrinkling o Staining of teeth o Yellow nails o Bad breath o Medicine less effective o Increase risk of Alzheimer’s disease 5. Environmental Tobacco Smoke • Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS)- smoke from tobacco products, including secondhand and mainstream smoke o Mainstream Smoke-smoke that is drawn though tobacco while inhaling o Sidestream Smoke (Secondhand)- smoke from the burning end of a cigarette, pipe, cigar or exhales by nonsmokers involuntary passive smokers ▯ Secondhand smoke as a carcinogen ▯ Children heavily exposed can effect physical health and cognitive abilities and academic success ▯ Allergic reactions, increase breast cancer 6. Tobacco Use and Prevention Policies • Tobacco industry reached agreement with states to pay more than $206 billion over 25 years to support antismoking education and advertising for quitting o Unfortunately hasn’t been used due to budget problems and cuts • Forbid advertising geared toward children like flavors and labels with “light” and “low tar” • Health warnings on products 7. Quitting • Must break both physical and psychological • Lengthy process with unsuccessful attempts • BENEFITS o Carbon monoxide and oxygen levels return to more after 8 hours o Mucus that clogs airways is broken up after 1 month o Circulation and the senses of taste and smell improve within weeks o More energy, sleep better, and feel more alert o Risk for lung cancer and stroke decreases after 1 year o Risk and heart attack drops to normal after 2 years o Normal life span after 10 years o Saving of money • HOW CAN YOU QUIT? o Cold turkey o Gradual reduction in smoking levels o Short term programs o Treatment centers o Work with physician • BREAKING THE NICOTINE ADDICTION o Nicotine withdrawal- symptoms including nausea, headaches, irritability, and intense tobacco cravings o 25 to 22 percent of people who have used nicotine replacement therapy or smoking cessation medications continue to abstain from cigarettes for more than 6 months o NICOTINE REPLACEMENT PRODUCTS ▯ Nicotine gum-chewing gum that releases nicotine in the bloodstream through the mouth ▯ Nicotine patch –patch supplies a steady amount of nicotine to the body through the skin ▯ Nicotine lozenges-lozenges in two strengths ▯ Nicotine nasal spray –pump bottle containing nicotine that tobacco users can inhale when they have an urge to smoke ▯ Nicotine inhaler-vaporized form of nicotine to the mouth through a mouthpiece attach to a plastic cartridge. o SMOKING CESSATION MEDICATIONS ▯ Bupropion (Zyban)- helps withdrawal symptoms and urge to smoke ▯ Vareniciline (Chantix)-helping people stop smoking with interfering with nicotine receptors in the brain to lessen the pleasurable effects o BREAKING THE SMOKING HABIT ▯ Anti-smoking therapy • Operant Conditioning-smokers to carry timer when the timer goes off the patient is required to smoke a cigarette. Then after the smoker is conditioned to associate timer with smoking the timer is eliminated and hopes the smoking is too • Self-Control Therapy-learned habit associated with situations. Therapy aims to identify these situations and teach smokers the skills to resist smoking
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