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Word Dissector 4

by: Briana Jurado

Word Dissector 4 HPHY 211

Briana Jurado

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Medical Terminology
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Briana Jurado on Tuesday November 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HPHY 211 at University of Oregon taught by Hopkins in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Medical Terminology in Human Physiology at University of Oregon.


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Date Created: 11/03/15
Word Dissector 4 Briana Jurado  Dr. Hopkins HPHY 211 21 October 2014  1. Pages 140­149  a. The general function of the digestive system is to break down the food we eat. It is essential to break down the food eaten to nourish our cells and provide us  with energy (Chaber 140).  b.   The Gastrointestinal Tract  c. Oral Cavity   Gastrointestinal tract begins here  The cheeks form the walls, while the lips  surround the opening  Hard palate = anterior portion of the roof  of the mouth. Soft palate lies posterior to  the hard palate   Word Dissector 4  Rugae (irregular ridges) cover the  anterior portion of the hard palate   Uvula = soft tissue projection; hangs  from the soft palate; aids production of  sounds/speech   Tongue moves food around while  chewing (mastication) and swallowing  (deglutition)   Papillae = raised areas on tongue; contain sensitive taste buds­allows for  discrimination of different tastes of food  (Chabner 140)   Tonsils = masses of lymphatic tissue;  protect the body from the invasion of  microorganisms & produce lymphocytes   Gums = fleshy tissue that surround the  sockets of the teeth (Chabner 141) Salivary Glands  Three pairs of salivary glands surround the  oral cavity. Saliva is produced, which  lubricates the mouth. It is produced from a  parotid gland, submandibular gland, and  sublingual gland. (Chabner 142)  Pharynx   Muscular tube (approx. 5 inches long)  that is lined with a mucous membrane   Passageway for air from the nasal cavity  to the windpipe   Passageway for food from the oral cavity to the esophagus   The epiglottis (cartilaginous flap of  tissue) covers the trachea so food does  not get stuck (Chabner 143)  Esophagus   Approx. 9­10 inch muscular tube; from  pharynx to the stomach   Peristalsis = involuntary, progressive,  rhythmic contraction of muscles in the  esophagus that propels a mass of food  (bolus) down to the stomach (Chabner  144)  Stomach   Food passes into the stomach from the  esophagus   3 main parts of the stomach  o Fundus (upper)  o Body (middle)  Word Dissector 4 o Antrum (lower portion)   Sphincters (rings of muscle) control the  openings of the stomach – prevent food  from regurgitation  o Lower esophageal sphincter  allows food to leave the stomach   Stomach rugae = folds in the mucus  membrane that line the stomach   Prepares food for the small intestine  o Food leaves the stomach in 1 to 4  hours (Chabner 145) Small intestine   Extends for 20 ft from the pyloric  sphincter to the first part of the large  intestine  3 parts  o Duodenum – 1 ft long; receives  food from the stomach & bile  from the liver/gallbladder &  pancreatic juice from the  pancreas  o Jejunum – 8 ft long; enzymes &  bile digest the food before  coming to the jejunum  o Ileum – 11 ft long; attaches to  first portion of the large intestine  (Chabner 145)  Large intestine   Extends from the ileum (small intestine)  to the anus   3 main components  o Cecum – pouch on right side  which connects the ileum at the  sphincter   Appendix (no clear  function but can become  inflamed and infected  when blocked) hands from the cecum  o Colon – about 5 ft. long  Ascending colon –  extends from cecum to the undersurface of the liver.  Turns to the left and  becomes the   Transverse colon – passes  Word Dissector 4 horizontally to the left  toward the spleen and  turns downward into the   Descending colon   Sigmoid colon – begins at  the distal end of the  descending colon and  leads into the rectum  o Rectum – terminates in the lower  opening of the gastrointestinal  tract (anus)   Receives the fluid waste from digestion  & stores the waste until it is released  from the body   Absorbs water in the waste material, the  body expels solid feces   Defecation – passage of feces from the  body through the anus   Diarrhea – passage of watery stools is the result of reduced water absorption into  the bloodstream through the walls of the  large intestine (Chabner 146)  Liver   RUQ; manufactures a thick, orange­black fluid called bile  o Bile contains cholesterol, bile  acids & bile pigments (Bilirubin)   Bilirubin can cause jaundice if the bile  duct is blocked (Chabner 147) Gallbladder   Pear­shaped sac under the liver   Stores and concentrates bile   Forces bile out of the cystic duct into the  common bile duct after meals (Chabner  147) Pancreas   Secretes pancreatic juices into the  pancreatic duct, joining the common bile  duct as it enters the duodenum (Chabner  147) d. Pathway of food through the gastrointestinal tract = oral cavity  pharynx   esophagus  stomach  small intestine  large intestine  anus – feces leaves  the body  2.   Word Dissector 4 COMBINING FORM  MEANING  Abdomin/o * Abdomen  Amyl/o  Starch  An/o  Anus  Append/o, appendic/o  Appendix  Bil/i  Gall, bile  Bilirubin/o  Bilirubin (bile pigment)  Bucc/o  Cheek  Cec/o  Cecum  Belly, abdomen  Celi/o  Cervic/o Neck; cervix  Cheil/o Lip  Chlorhydr/o Hydrochloric acid  Chol/e Gall, bile  Cholangi/o Bile vessel  Cholecyst/o Gallbladder  Choledoch/o Common bile duct  Cib/o Meal  Cirrh/o Orange­yello  Col/o, colon/o Colon  Dent/i Tooth  Duoden/o Duodenum  Enter/o Intestines, usually small intestines  Esophag/o  Esophagus  Eti/o  Cause  Gastr/o Stomach  Gingiv/o  Gums  Gloss/o Tongue  Gluc/o, glyc/o  Sugar  Glycogen/o  Glycogen, animal starch  Hem/o, hemat/o Blood  Hepat/o  liver Herni/o  Hernia  Idi/o  Unknown; individual; distinct  Ile/o  Ileum  Pancreas  Pancreat/o  Peritone/o Peritoneum  Pharyng/o Throat  Word Dissector 4 Proct/o Anus and rectum  Prote/o Protein  Py/o Pus  Pylor/o Pyloric sphincter  Rect/o Rectum  Sialaden/o Salivary gland  Splen/o  Spleen  Steat/o Fat  Stomat/o Mouth  Tonsill/o  Tonsil  SUFFIX  MEANING  ­ase  Enzyme  ­centesis Surgical puncture to remove fluid  ­chezia  Defecation, elimination of wastes  ­ectasia  Dilation, widening  ­ectasis  Dilation, widening  ­ectomy Removal; excision; resection  ­emesis  Vomiting  ­emia  Blood condition  ­genesis  Producing; forming  ­graphy  Process of recording  Abnormal condition  ­iasis  ­megaly  Enlargement  ­orexia  Appetite  ­rrhage  Spitting  ­rrhagia  Spitting  ­rrhaphy  Suture  ­rrhea  Flow, discharge  ­scopy  Visual examination  ­spasm  Involuntary contraction of muscles  ­stasis  Stopping, controlling  ­stenosis Narrowing, tightening  ­stomy  New opening  ­tomy  Process of cutting  ­tresia  Opening  3.  Perianal  Pertaining to around the anus  Appendectomy  Process of cutting the appendix  Word Dissector 4 Appendicitis  Inflammation of the appendix  Buccal mucosa  Pertaining to the cheek mucous membrane  Cecal  Pertaining to the cecum  Celiac  Pertaining to the belly, abdomen  Cheilosis  Narrowing, tightening of the lip Cholecystectomy  Removal of the gallbladder  Choledochotomy  Process of cutting the common bile duct  Colostomy  New opening to the colon  Colonic  Pertaining to the colon  Colonoscopy  Visual examination of the colon  Dentibuccal  Pertaining to the tooth cheek  Duodenal Pertaining to the duodenum  Enterocolitits  Inflammation of the intestines, colon  Enterostomy  New opening between the small intestines  Mesentery  Condition in the middle of the intestines  Parenteral  Pertaining to apart from the intestines  Pertaining to the esophagus  Esophageal  Facila  Pertaining to the face  Gastrostomy  New opening in the stomach  Gingivitis  Inflammation of the gums  Hypoglossal  Pertaining to under the tongue  Hepatoma  Tumor of the liver  Hepatomegaly  Enlargement of the liver  Ileocecal sphincter  Pertaining to the ileum cecum sphincter  Ileitis  Inflammation of the ileum  Ileostomy  New opening of the ileum  Choldedochojejunoostomy  New opening of the common bile duct  jejunum  Gastrojejunostomy  New opening of the stomach jejunum  Labial  Pertaining to the lip  Laparoscopy  Visual examination of the abdomen  Sublingal  Pertaining to under the tongue  Submandibular  Pertaining to under the lower jaw  Orthodontist  Specialist of straight teeth  Specialist of around the teeth  Periodontist  Endodontist  Specialist of in the tooth  Oral  Pertaining to the mouth  Palatoplasty  Surgical repair of the palate  Pancreatitis  Inflammation of the pancreas  Peritonitis  Inflammation of the peritoneum  Word Dissector 4 Pharyngeal  Pertaining to the throat  Palatopharyngoplasty  Surgical repair of the palate/throat  Proctologist  Specialist of the anus and rectum  Pyloroplasty  Surgical repair of the pyloric sphincter  Rectocele  Hernia of the rectum  Sialadenitis  Inflammation of the salivary gland  Sigmoidoscopy  Visual examination of the sigmoid colon  Stomatitis  Inflammation of the mouth  Uvulectomy  Process of cutting the uvula  Amylase  Enzyme starch  Biliary  Pertaining to the gall, bile  Hyperbilirubinemia  Blood condition of excessive bilirubin  Cholelithiasis  Abnormal condition of the gall stone  Achlorhydria  Condition involving absence of  hydrochloric acid  Gluconeogenesis  Producing sugar new  Hyperglycemia  Blood condition containing excess sugar  Glycogenolysis  Breakdown of glycogen  Lipoma  Fluid collection in the fat, lipids Lithogenesis  Forming, producing stone  Protease  Enzyme protein  Pyorrhea  Flow, discharge of pus  Sialolith  Saliva stone  Steatorrhea  Flow, discharge of the fats  Liapse  Enzymes speed up chemical reactions  Hematochezia  Defecation of the blood  Choledocholithiasis  Abnormal condition of the common bile  duct  Postprandial  Meal after  4.  Cholangiectasis  Dilation of the bile vessel  Hematemesis  Vomiting of blood  Dyspepsia  Digestion, painful  Polyphagia  Eating, swallowing excessively  Dysphagia  Eating, swallowing painfully  Abdominoplasty  Surgical repair of the abdomen  Hemoptysis  Spitting blood  Hemorrhage  Bursting forth of blood  Gastrorrhagia  Bursting forth of the stomach  Word Dissector 4 Herniorrhaphy  Suture hernia  Diarrhea  Flow, discharge through  Pylorospasm  Involuntary contraction of muscles of the  pylorus  Bronchospasm  Involuntary contraction of muscles of the  bronchial tubes  Cholestasis  Stopping, controlling gall, bile  Pyloric stenosis  Narrowing, tightening of the pyloric  sphincter  Atresia  Absence of normal opening  Esophageal atresia  Esophagus doesn’t connect to the stomach  Biliary atresia  Non­formation of the bile duct  Buccal  Pertaining to the cheek  Cecal volvulus  Pertaining to the cecum volvulus  Celia disease  Pertaining to abdomen disease  Cheilosis  Narrowing, tightening of the lip  Cholelithiasis  Stopping, controlling  Cholangitis  Inflammation of the bile vessel  Tumor, mass, swelling of the bile vessel  Cholangiocarcinoma  that is cancerous  Cholecystectomy  Removal of the gallbladder Choledochal  Pertaining to the common bile duct  Choledochectasia  Condition of the common bile duct  Colectomy  New opening to the colon Colonoscopy  Visual examination of the colon Dentalgia  Pain of the tooth  Duodenal  Pertaining to the duodenum Gastroenteritis  Inflammation of the stomach, intestines  Esophageal atresia  Non­formation of the esophagus  Gastrojejunostomy  New opening of the stomach jejunum  Gastrostomy  New opening in the stomach Gingivectomy  Removal of the gum  Glossectomy  Excision of the tongue  Gluconeogenesis  Producing new sugar  Glycogen  Substance that produces glucose, sugar  Hepatomegaly  Enlargement of the liver Herniorrhaphy  Suture of a hernia  Ileostomy  New opening of the ileum Cholecystojejunostomy  New opening of the common bile duct  jejunum Word Dissector 4 Labiodental  Pertaining to the lip, tooth  Sublingual  Pertaining to under the tongue Liapse  Enzyme  Cholecystolithiasis  Stopping, controlling of the gall bladder  Periodontal membrane  Pertaining to around the tooth membrane  Oropharynx  Between soft palate and hyoid bone  Palatoplasty  Surgical repair of the palate Pancreatic  Pertaining to the pancreas  Pancreatoduodenectomy  Removal of the pancreas duodenum  Proctosigmoidscopy  Visual examination of the anus/rectum,  sigmoid colon  Pyloric stenosis  Pertaining to the pylorus stenosis  Rectal carcinoma  Pertaining to a cancerous tumor of the  rectum  Sialadenectomy  Removal of saliva Splenic flexure  Pertaining to the spleen flexure  Steatorrhea  Flow, discharge of fat  Aphthous stomatitis  Pertaining to inflammation of a stomach  ulcer  5. What made you want to become a naturopathy doctor?      Why would you suggest a naturopathy doctor instead of a normal doctor?  Chabner, Davi­Ellen. The Language of Medicine. St. Louis, MO: Saunders/Elsevier,  2014. Print. Ruiz Villarreal, Mariana. Digestive System Diagram. Digital image. Wikimedia  Commons. N.p., n.d. Web.


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