Ch.12andreview CPO 2002
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sabrina Notetaker on Tuesday November 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CPO 2002 at Florida State University taught by Quintin Beazer in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO COMPARATIVE POLITICS in Political Science at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 11/03/15
10/27 and 10/29 and 11/3 Chapter 12: Parliamentary, presidential, and semi-presidential Classifying Types of Democracies 3 types o presidential (US) o Parliamentary o Semi-Presidential In parliamentary democracies, voters elect parties in the legislative o The parties negotiate to decide who will form a coalition govt. By government we often mean the people occupying the country, state or local political institutions The government compromises a prime minister and cabinet The executive government is dependent upon legislature In presidential demo the execute doesn’t depend on legislative majority In parliament, the executive depends only on legislative The legislative can remove the government coalition with a vote of no confidence o sometimes a new government negotiated without an election o elsewhere, government defeat leads to new Ireland A vote of no confidence is initiated by the legislature, if the government doesn’t obtain a legislative majority in this vote, it must resign A constructive vote of confidence must also indicate who will replace the dismissed government A vote of confidence is initiated by the government If the government does not obtain legislative majority in this vote, it must resign How do parliamentary demo work? o Government formation Government coalition is negotiated by small group of senior legislative politicians, party leaders A formateur is the person designated to form government The ability to nominate cabinet members is one of the most important powers held by the PM (or formateur) o in single party government, PM has big discretion A government must enjoy the confidence of the legislature to come 2 power o meaning: maintaining 50% It is relatively rare to have majority parties in parliamentary The legislature may or may not take a formal vote to formally ratify Models of Government Formation Office seeking o Politicians/parties are interested in the intrinsic beliefs of office Policy seeking Policy-seeking politicians In an office seeking world, a formateur forms government by giving disturbing ministerial posts. Gamson’s Law (proportionality norm): cabinet positions are distributed among government parties in proportion to the number of seats that each party contributes to the government’s legislative majority. Formateurs will not want more parties in government than are necessary to obtain legislative majority o a minimal winning coalition (MWC) is one in which there are no parties that aren’t required to control a legislative majority o They will choose the smallest coalition possible or “least minimal winning coalition” Policy: seeking model of government o if parties care about policy then they aren’t going to form a coalition with just anyone form a coalition with parties which are ideologically proximate Connected coalition: will form amongst hypotheses about coalition office seeking world o expect to observe least minimal winning coalitions policy seeking world o expect to observe connected least minimal winning coalition o Empirically, policy motivated models make more accurate predictions. 10/29 Surplus Majority Governments A surplus majority government is one in which the cabinet includes more parties than are strictly necessary to control a legislative majority. Why? o Surplus majority governments may be common in time of crisis. govts of national unity right after WWII o surplus majority governments may be required to change the constitution these coalitions may look “oversized” but they are no larger than legally necessary in these circumstances o It may make strategic sense to have surplus majority governments. insulate the coalition from defection by a particular party Minority Governments o a minority government occurs when governmental parties do not jointly command a majority o A minority government can exist only as long as the opposition chooses not to bring it down sometimes, we know who makes up this implicit majority in other countries, the government does not rely on specific “support” parties o Every time we see a minority government, there must be an implicit majority in the legislature that supports it. in some countries, we know who makes up this implicit majority In other countries, the government does not rely on specific “support” parties o Strom argued that minority governments were a normal and democratic outcome of party competition in parliamentary democracies o Minority governments seem to be more likely when the opposition parties are strong There's A corporatist interest group tradition o Minority governments seem to be less likely when there is an investiture vote o We cannot say whether the presence of a strong party has an effect on the formation of minority government o The government formation process is quite complicated- parties have to bargain over policy and office on average, it takes about 29.9 days for a government to form in Western Europe it took 540 days to form a government following the Belgian elections in 2010 o Governments can end for two types of reasons technical reasons: things beyond the control of the government such as a constitutionally mandated election or the death of the PM Discretionary reasons: political acts on the part of the government or the opposition such as a vote of no confidence, calling early elections, and the like. Endogenous Election Timing o the government gets to choose when an election occurs (endogenous election timing) in all democracies, there is a maze amount of time allowed between elections (five years in the UK) however, governments can call elections at any point in this period of time Making and Breaking Governments: Presidential Democracies o presidential cabinets the government “formation” process in presidential regimes is different from that parliamentary regimes in presidential systems voters elect representatives to both a legislature and the presidency, who then must negotiate in order to govern cabinet membership is decided unilaterally by the president, (sometimes with legislative approval) the reason for these differences is that the president does not rely on a legislative majority to stay in power o Delegation problems Delegation occurs when one person or group (principal) relies on another person or group (agent) to act on the principal’s behalf car owners (principals) delegate the responsibility of fixing the car to the mechanic (agent) Delegation offers potential advantages for the principal (the person or actor doing the delegating) benefit from the expertise of others reduce personal costs and effort Principal-agent, or delegation, problems Agency loss: difference between the decision made by the agent and what the principal would have chosen had he done the job himself Two possible problems: Adverse selection: principal cannot observe whether agent has the right preferences or skills Moral hazard: principal doesn’t have complete information about the agent’s actions o Adverse selection principals can use two mechanisms to gain information about the agent's: these are solutions to the problem of adverse selection Ex ante mechanisms: before the agent acts o screening: sets up a competition among candidates for agent position o selection: agents are put into a position to choose an action that reveals information about their “type” o Delegation Problems principals can use two mechanisms to gain information about the agents: These are solutions to the problem of moral hazard Ex post mechanisms: after the agent acts o police patrol system: principals directly and actively monitor the agent's actions o fire alarm system: principal relies on others’ information about agent’s performance Review Day: Loyalty Norm Exercise (Selective Theory) o Suppose that apolitical leader raises $1 billion in tax revenue. Assume that the size of the winning coalition is 250,00 and that the sis of selectorate is 50 million What is w (winning coalition)? 250,000 What is s (selectorate)? 50 million o w=250,000; s=50,000,000; revenues=$1,000,000,000 divide revenue by w so the answer is $4,000 o What is the probability that a member if the selectorate will be in the winning coalition? w/s ½00 o what is the probability that a member of the selectorate will not be in the winning coalition Pr(NOT in W)= 1-w/s o Suppose that a number of winning coalition is thinking of defecting to a challenger. What is the (maximum) expects value of defecting in terms of private goods? EU(defect)= Pr(in W)*Pr(not in w)*(payoff 2) (1/200)(4000)+(.995)(0)=20 o What is the difference between how much CAN pay her winning coalition compared to how much she NEEDS to pay to keep their loyalty? 4,000-20= 3980 o w=250,000; s=1,000,000; revenue= 1,000,000,000 o How does changing the size of the selectorate alter the problem? doesn’t change how much leader could spend on private goods for winning coalition change w/s= 250,000/1,000,000= ¼
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