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Chapter 1 Notes

by: Allison Faust

Chapter 1 Notes BIOSC 1445

Allison Faust
GPA 3.55
Animal Communication
Dr. Morehouse

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These are the notes for all of Chapter 1.
Animal Communication
Dr. Morehouse
Class Notes
Animal communication, Chapter 1
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allison Faust on Friday January 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOSC 1445 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Dr. Morehouse in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 80 views.


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Date Created: 01/23/15
Animal Communication Chapter 1 Signals and Communication Chapter 1 Signals and Communication I Why Study Animal Communication a Diversity and Principles i Diversity is a ubiquitous property of nature ii Principles discovered in one discipline will be compatible with principles in other disciplines 1Diversity observed in animal communication requires the melding of physics chemistry genetics physiology evolutionary biology taxonomy behavioral ecology community and population ecology informatics and economics iii Studies of animal communication are providing new insights for and tools for conservation biology and wildlife management pest control linguistics developmental biology immunology epidemiology neurobiology and psychology ll Cues Signals and Signal Evolution a Cues i Sense Organs l monitor cues ii Information about the physical ecological and social conditions surrounding the animal iii Cues l assessable properties that are at least partly correlated with a condition of interest 1Animals face a tradeoff between relying on a cue that is easy to measure but imperfectly correlated with a condition of interest vs trying to measure the condition directly b Signals i Signal l stimuli produced by a sender and monitored by a receiver to the average bene t of both parties 1Like cues they are correlated with conditions outside the receiver and thus provide potential information to it 2Unlike cues their function is to provide information to another animal 3lf the cost of improving signals by either party are higher than the bene ts then evolution will not favor re nement ii Deception l occurs when a sender produces a signal whose reception will bene t it at the expense of the receiver regardless of the condition with which the signal is supposed to be correlated c Signal Evolution i Extensive monitoring of cues by animals sets the stage for the subsequent evolution of signals Ill Principles and Animal Communication Animal Communication Chapter 1 Signals and Communication a Physiological Mechanisms l mechanisms with which senders develop signals and receivers process them are those that the animals are already using before signals evolve i Signals evolve from cue monitoring b Physical constraints l differ depending upon the animals i Ambient medium air water solid substrates ii Habitat eg forest vs open plains iiiCircadian rhythm diurnal vs nocturnal ivMobiity v Position in the food web viBody Size c Three sources of diversity in animal communication i Different physiological preadaptations for monitoring cues ii Taxonomic affiliations of each species iiiEconomics of communication 1 Both the sender and the receiver should bene t at least on average by communicating 2 Can be both subtle and complicated 3 Costs a Energetic b Temporal c Anatomical investments d Increased exposure to predators disease and parasites e Risks of being deceivedmanipulated by other parties MDegree to which sender and receiver have commensurate interests in successful communication 1 Even in apparent cooperative contexts some con ict of interest is usually present 2 The only communication in which there are no potential con icts of interest occurs when an animals quottalksquot to itself a Echolocation l animal emits a sound listens for echo and then uses differences between the two to infer the presence of nearby obstacles predators or prey bats dolphins etc 3 Con icts of interest optimal level of signal accuracy may degenerate over evolutionary time until it did not pay to communicate 4 Honestv guarantee receivers facing a con ict of interest limit responses to those signals that have this 5 Evolutionary game theory l discipline that merges classical game theory from human economics with basic principles from behavioral ecology and evolutionary biology Animal Communication Chapter 1 Signals and Communication 6 Network many animals broadcast signals expressly because it pays to contact many receivers at once a Can set off a wave of successive responses that both radiates away from receivers and feeds back to them in complicated ways d Traditional approach to studies of animal communication dyadic pairs IV Principles of Evolutionary Biology a Three evolutionary principles relevant to animal communication i Most traits suitable for signal production or reception are already adapted to speci c functions and contexts ii All organisms have arisen by descent closely related species are likely to have similar physiological substrates and physical constraints on the evolution of their signals iiiBehavior like anatomy and physiology is often an evolved and heritable trait largely adaptive b Adaptations l physiological substrates that senders and receivers recruit for communication i They are likely to be those combinations of traits that in prior generations most effectively promoted their owners survival and reproduction in their current contexts c Sexual selection l the process of differential contribution to future generations when the relevant traits focus on competition for mates within a sex d Heritable l able to be passed on to a progeny through genetic transmission e Mutations new variants appear through these in the genes which affects traits f Phylogenetic tree l a reconstruction of the most likely evolutionary relationships between species based on fossil forms that reveal similarities and differences in the anatomy physiology and genetic structure of current taxa i Show increased branching over evolutionary time with no branch fusing and branches arrested when a taxon goes extinct ii Ecology and phylogeny are two independent factors affecting signal diversity V Classifying Communication Systems a Classifying by preadaptation modality and medium Animal Communication Chapter 1 Signals and Communication i The medium air water or solid substrates in which animals monitor cues and exchange signals can have a dramatic effect on the adaptations required ii Multimodal l some signals rely on more than one modality 1 Permits a wider variety of distinctive signals to be generated but it also requires suf cient preadaptations in the relevant ancestors for manipulating and detecting more than one modality 2 May require additional nervous system integration b Classifying by informational focus i Coding rules the correlations between a set of signals and conditions invoked by either party for the exchange c Classi cation by honesty guarantees i Five common cases 1 Index signals 2 Handicap signals 3 Conventional signals 4 Proximity signals 5 No guarantees d Classi cation by context i Contextual categories 1 Aqqressive a Threats opponent assessments appeasements indications of dominance status 2 Mating aMate attraction courtship solicitation copulationgamete release and post mating announcements 3 Social integration 4 Environmental a Presencelocation of predators food water refuge resources e Crossclassi cations VI The Signaling Sequence a Regardless of modality the signaling sequence requires seven steps i Sender 1 Generation 2 Modi cation 3 Coupling ii Medium 4 Propagation iii Receiver 5 Coupling 6 Modi cation 7 Classi cation


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