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Week 2 Notes

by: Fatima Ahmed

Week 2 Notes SOP 3932

Fatima Ahmed
GPA 3.75
Psychology of Drugs and Addiction
William Berry

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About this Document

Notes on The Nervous System, Tobacco, and Caffeine
Psychology of Drugs and Addiction
William Berry
Class Notes
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Popular in Psychology of Drugs and Addiction

Popular in Psychlogy

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Fatima Ahmed on Friday January 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOP 3932 at Florida International University taught by William Berry in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Drugs and Addiction in Psychlogy at Florida International University.


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Date Created: 01/23/15
one of two types of cells the other is neurons Most important function of glia related to substances is the creation of the blood brain barrier Blood brain barrier a barrier that separates the blood and the uid that surrounds the brain Semipermeable allows some but not all chemicals to enter the brain Neurons analyzing and transmitting information Either a drug alters the availability of buerotransitters at the synapse Block the reception of neurotransmission creating more of the chemical in the synapse SSRI By directly interacting with a neurotransmitter receptor Resulting in more of the chemical being available for release each time the neuron res The nervous system Somatic these peripheral nerves carry sensory information into the central nervous system Autonomic nervous svstem Regulates the involuntary actions of the body Divided into Parasympatheticstimulates digestion slows the heart other effects associated with a relaxed state Sympathetic involved in ght or ight reactions To activate this you can breathe in longer slower and breathe out faster 5 times when you re getting tired The Central Nervous svstem The brain and spinal cord The imbic system The hypothalamus small structure near the base of the brain involved in hormonal output and involved in feeding drinking temperature regulation and sexual behavior Chemical Pathways know these for the exam there should be 67 of them related to Parkinson s disease psychotic behavior and with the system mesolimbic that is associated with the rewards of substances associated with weight regulation food intake impulse aggressiveness excessive alcohol consumption and the occurrence of suicide Many antidepressants are SSRI selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors found in most areas of the brain and exerts generalized inhibitory functions also found throughout the brain makes cells more excitable endogenous substances that produce effects similar to morphine and other opioids Drug names Most drugs derived from plants Drug names Brand Chemical name Formula name Drug categories Stimulants cocaine amphetamine caffeine Hallucinogens mescaline led PCP Marijuana Nicotine Depressantsalcohol barbiturates sedatives inhalants Opioids morphine oxycontine heroin codeine methadone PsychotherapeuticsProzac Haldol Zoloft The placebo effect Nonspeci c effects are those that derive from the users unique background and particular perception Also called quotset and settingquot Speci c effects are those that derive from a certain concentration of the drug being in the target issue Dose response relationships Dose response curve a graph showing the relationship between the dose and the effect over a number of tested individuals Safety margin dosage difference between an acceptable level of effectiveness and the lowest toxic dose Cumulative effects blood level increase with each dose Potency refers only to the relative effects of the dose Most potent drug known right now LSD Getting drugs to the brain Lipid solubility tendency of a chemical to dissolve in fat as opposed to water Oral thru the mouth Injection ntravenous IV Subcutaneous skin popping Intramuscuar Inhalation Others Topica Suppositories Mucus membranes of the mouth chewing tobacco Attacks on Tobacco gtReports in the 1930 and 40 s linked cigarette smoking to cancer gtThe rst surgeon general report on cigarette smoking was published in 1964 and declared a link to lung cancer in men Many women did not smoke back then gt In 1965 Congress required cigarette packages to carry a warning label gtIn 1971 all television and radio advertisement of cigarettes was banned Current Cigarette Use Education is correlated with decreased smoking Smokeless Tobacco Two types loose leafmoist stuff Don t get cancer from chewing tobacco but can get precancerous lesion in mouth Cigarette smoking is the chief single avoidable cause of death in out society 20 of all deaths in US related to Tobacco currently Passive Smoking Second Han smoking Second hand smoke is a known carcinogen and estimated to cause several thousand deaths per year Represents a battle between individual freedom Smoking and Pregnancy Responsible for lower birth weights The doe s response relationship the more the mother smokes the greater the reduction in baby s weight Babies of smoker are shorter and smarter Smaller head circumference Small but consistent differences in neurological problems Inhalation is the most effective drug delivery system Nicotine is established as one of the most toxic drugs known There is enough nicotine in one cigar to kill two humans Nicotine causes the release of adrenaline Increase in coronary blood ow Increased heart rate Smokers need more oxygen Withdrawal irrabiity Anxiety Difficulty concentrating Increased appetite Quitting All of the education has contributed to their being 40 million former smokers 90 quit without formal treatment programs Caffeine Caffeine is the most used psychoactive drug Xanthine belongs to the class of drug which caffeine belongs to Xanthine s include caffeine theorize and theophylline Co ee Originally discovered in Arabia The average cup of drip coffee has 115 mg of caffeine Although people often say tea has more caffeine than coffee that is true per pound not per cup In one cup coffee has more caffeine Chocolate has caffeine but very little Soft drinks CocaCola the rst soft drink began as green nerve tonic in 1886 Originally had small amounts of cocaine Soft drinks are limited to a little less than 6 mg per ounce In 1970 more coffee than soda and now more soda than coffee Energy Drinks Jolt cola has the maximum amount of caffeine allowed for soft drinks at almost 72 mg per 12 ounces Red Bulls main active ingredient although touting itself an energy drink is caffeine at 80 mg per 83 ounces Caffeine and Over the counter drugs NoDoz has 100 mg caffeine and Viarin 200 mgs Caffeine is absorbed quickly and reaches peak amounts in the blood at 30 minutes Caffeine decreases fatigue performance enhancer 500 mg affect the autonomic centers of the brain increasing heart rate and respiration Effects or concerns Stimulation Headache Caffeine is not known to cause cancer Reproductive effects caffeine decreases fertility in women and increases the risk of miscarriage in pregnant women


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