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Extinction and Stimulus Control

by: Aimee Castillon

Extinction and Stimulus Control PSYC 304

Marketplace > George Mason University > Psychlogy > PSYC 304 > Extinction and Stimulus Control
Aimee Castillon
GPA 3.61

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About this Document

Chapter 8 lecture notes
Principles of Learning
Patrick McElroy
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aimee Castillon on Wednesday November 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 304 at George Mason University taught by Patrick McElroy in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Principles of Learning in Psychlogy at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 11/04/15
Organization name Student name Principles of Learning PSYC 304 • Fall 2015 Heading: 11/2/15 Notes: Chapter 8   Operant Conditioning: Extinction and Stimulus Control  acquisition: lever press (R) →  ­ Extinction­ n ​onreinforcement of a previously reinforced response  food (SR)  ­ causes a decrease in the strength of a previously reinforced  extinction: lever press → no  response  food  ­ partial extinction­ target response is diminished, but has not been    entirely eliminated    ­ important to be certain the withheld reinforcing stimulus is    actually what has been maintaining the behavior  i.e. vending machines  ­ e.g. child whining for candy­­is the candy, parental attention,    or both?    ­ side effects of extinction    ­ extinction burst­ temporary increase in responding (frequency    and intensity) when an extinction procedure is initiated    ­ increase in variability­ behavior tends to increase in variability  whining child­ parent  when extinction is initiated  doesn’t provide candy­  ­ emotional behavior­ agitation and frustration  ­ extinction burst­  ­ aggression­ demonstrated in animals and humans  parents give in  ­ resurgence­ return to behaviors that previously resulted in    reinforcement    ­ i.e. spouse spends time with parents when partner    doesn’t give him/her attention    ­ depression­ a general, low level of activity  high resistance­ more  ­ resistance to extinction­ ​ extent to which responding persists after an  resistance to extinction  extinction procedure is implemented  low resistance­ extinction  ­ factors affecting resistance  will hold  ­ schedule of reinforcement    ­ partial reinforcement effect­ behavior on intermittent    schedule is more resistant to extinction than behavior    on crf    ­ variable ratio schedules are more resistant to    extinction than fixed ratio schedules    ­ schedules with larger ratio requirements are    more resistant to extinction than those with    smaller ratio requirements    ­ can help explain why some behaviors why are    difficult to extinguish    ­ i.e. dogs begging at the table, whining    children    ­ unsuccessful attempts to stop reinforcing the    behavior result in partial reinforcement and    more resistance to extinction    ­ history of reinforcement­ behaviors that have been reinforced    a lot will be more difficult to extinguish     ­ magnitude of reinforcer­ large reinforcers typically result in    greater resistance to extinction than small reinforcers    ­ degree of deprivation­ being deprived of reinforcement    creates greater resistance to extinction    ­ i.e. a very hungry rat’s behavior will be more resistant    to extinction than that of a slightly hungry rat    ­ previous experience with extinction­ learning about extinction    causes subsequent behavior to extinguish more rapidly    ­ distinctive signal for extinction­ discriminative stimulus for    extinction facilitates the process    ­ spontaneous recovery­  can occur in operant condition as well as classical    conditioning    ­ reappearance of extinguished response following a rest period after    extinction     ­ differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) ​­ reinforcement of a    behavior other than the one being extinguished    ­ can reduce or eliminate the side effects of extinction    ­ i.e. functional communication training for children  stimulus control examples:  ­ eliminates the unwanted behavior (i.e. whining or crying,  ­ in­laws in town =  while reinforcing appropriate attention­getting behavior  chores  stimulus control­ ​ presence of an S​ D​affects the probability of behavior    ­ i.e. SD: red light; behavior: stopping    ­ stimulus generalization and discrimination    ­ generalization­ tendency for a response to be emitted in the  Sᵮ= discriminative stimulus   presence of stimuli similar to S​ D    ­ discrimination­ tendency for responses to be emitted more in the    presence of one stimulus (the S​ D ​ than others    ­ discrimination training­ reinforcement in the presence of S ​ and not    other stimuli    ­ other stimuli signal reinforcement, and are therefore    discriminative stimuli for extinction    ­ peak shift­ an effect of discrimination training    ­ peak of generalization gradient moves away from S ​     in a direction away from Sᵮ  Difference between multiple  ­ Multiple schedules and behavioral contrast  schedules and chained  ­ two or more schedules presented in sequence  schedules  ­ each schedule has its own S ​ and each results in reinforcement    ­ differs from conjunctive schedule in which the schedule    contingencies are simultaneous    ­ differs from a chained schedule in which only the terminal schedule    results in reinforcement    ­ stimulus control in a multiple schedule means that the subject shows    schedule­appropriate behavior in the presence of the S ​ for each    component    ­ behavioral contrast o ​ccurs when a change in the rate of reinforcement on    one component of a multiple schedule leads to a change in the rate of    responding on the other component    ­ positive contrast­ d ​ ecrease in the rate of reinforcement​  on one    component results in the increase in the ​ rate of responding  on the    other component    ­ FI 60­sec: FI­60 sec    ­ FI 120 sec: FI 60­sec    ­ FI 60­sec = possible 60 reinforcers/hour    ­ rate of rft is changed­made more lean­to a possible    30­reinforcers/hour on the FI 120­sec schedule    ­ note that there’s no benefit to increased responding on    unchanged schedule    ­ negative contrast­ ​ increase in the rate of reinforcement​  on one    component results in the d ​ecrease in the rate of responding  ​on the    other component    ­ FI 60­sec: FI­60­sec: equal responding on both components    ­ FI 30­sec: FI 60­sec­ decreased: responding on the     ­ unchanged FI 60­sec. schedule  anticipatory contrast is the  ­ anticipatory contrast­ rate of responding changes in a direction  “yellow light” of responding  opposite to that of an upcoming change in the rate of reinforcement    ­ e.g. pigeons have been trained to anticipate an upcoming    extinction procedure with the use of a Sᵮ, ​and in its    presence, show an increased rate of responding (contrast to    the anticipated decrease in rate of reinforcement)    ­ errorless discrimination training­ ​ gradual discrimination training  errorless discrimination  procedure  training examples:  ­ minimizes the number of non reinforced responses in the presence  ­ Shell Game  of Sᵮ  ­ errorless learning and  ­ eliminates frustration often displayed in the initial stages of traditional  autism  discrimination training when responses in the presence of the Sᵮ    (I.e. “mistakes”) do not result in reinforcement    ­ two parts    ­ Sᵮ is introduced early­­ that is, soon after responding to the    SD​ has been established    ­ Sᵮ is initially presented in a weak form (e.g. dim light), then    gradually intensified (process is called f ​ading)​    ­ Terrace­ errorless discrimination training in pigeons    ­ pigeons trained to peck a red response key (SD) on a VI    60­sec schedule    ­ a dark key­ which pigeons tend not to peck­ signaled    extinction (Sᵮ)    ­ green color was then faded in on the previously dark key    ­ also successfully used this method transfer stimulus control    from red and green response keys to colorless keys with    vertical or horizontal lines    ­ other researchers have applied this type of procedure,    notably in the case of the young girl who had issues with    math    ­ one problem with this procedure is that it seems to interfere    with learning new discriminations later    ­ stimulus control: additional applications    ­ often used to train animals for shows, specialized tasks, or simply for    management purposes  targeting examples  ­ targeting involves training an animal to approach and touch an object  ­ giant African pouched  ­ e.g. training dolphins to jump through a hoop  rats are used to hunt  ­ directing search dogs with a laser beam  for land mines  ­ positioning a tiger in order to safely administer an injection  ­ dogs have been  trained to alert cancer  cells  ­ Coast Guard  experimented with  using pigeons in  search and rescue  efforts, but cancelled  the project in 1983 


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