Lecture 14 Gender
Lecture 14 Gender Anthropology 1000
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Bird on Wednesday November 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Anthropology 1000 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Christopher Berk in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 11/04/15
Lecture 14 Gender Gende gt Most Auburnites assume that sex and gender are the same thing A man is basically a person of male sex XY and a woman is basically a person of female sex XX gt But anthropologists discovered long ago that ways of being a man or woman differed radically in time and space whereas the physical characteristics that de ned a person as male or female were always present gt Gender is noticed in sexual dimorphism of the primates in the previous lectures gt How boys and girls learn to express their masculinity and femininity along with their gender roles will vary across and within cultures 0 F tasks and activities a culture assigns by gender gt is a set of roles assumptions practices and stereotypes we use to give shape to male and female characteristics both social and biological gt Gender is like a costume we all must wear and the importance of gender differences is apparent in the consistency with which men and women dress and adorn themselves differently gt Unlike other identities gendered clothing bodies and hairstyles vary predictable and consistently gt However gender is more than just appearance 0 The way we interact with other people our temperament the way we occupy spaces are uniquely gendered IE Men take up more space than needed Sex vs Gender gt biological distinctions between males and females 0 MaleFemale gt cultural constructions of male and female characteristics 0 ManWoman Gender Stereotypes gt We all have very strong that inform our expectations of normal or appropriate behavior dress and temperament for American and women 0 IE Barbie doll there are certain traits built into dolls for women certain ideas of femininity 0 IE GI JOE which is an Action Figure not a doll there are certain traits built into action gures for men certain ideas of masculinity gt Gender stereotypes are especially evident in consumerism gt CC 14 Women in the Mind byJessica Smith Rolston O O O 0 About women working in the coal mines in Wyoming How did these women have to take on different gendered identities to succeed in this workplace 3 IDENTITIES DISCUSSED 1 Tomboys had to act like quotone of the guysquot 2 Ladies wore makeup had nails done hair done overall more classy and feminine Others looked down on them because they assumed they wouldn t work hard 3 Bitches went too far towards the masculine side 0 IE Too profane too unladylike Which identity works best for women coal miners as they relate to men TOMBOYS As Rolston writes quotThe ways in which women act and position themselves as particular kinds of gendered people do have concrete implications for their job securityquot Margaret Mead gt Provided many intriguing crosscultural gender differences gt Her main discovery Ideas of masculinity and femininity are culturally variable gt She found that by comparing three societies 0 O O men and women both acted as Americans except women to act mild nurturing men and women both acted as we expect men to act erce aggressive men act as we stereotype women catty overly concerned with appearance whereas women act as we stereotype men energetic managerial less emphasis on personal appearance gt MAIN POINT it shows that these things are not rooted in biology We naturalize gender as we do race and kinship Third SexesGender gt In our society we tend to assume that a twogender or twosex system is something we all share as humans gt While a twosex or twogender system may be the norm it is neither a cultural nor a biological universal gt Third Sexes O a person who has male and female genitalia Older term hermaphrodite Klinefelter Syndrome Triple X Syndrome etc o reject their gender by birth Unlike the intersex examples given transgender does not necessarily have to have its roots in biology gt Just as there are biological exceptions to the twosex system norm there are cultural exceptions to the twogender system norm gt Just as we as Americans tend to wear gendered costumes that match our anatomical sex there are many people who can wear gender wardrobes that run counter to their anatomical sex gt These are not examples of males becoming women They are culturally recognized third genders which are neither man nor woman Hijras gt Found in India gt Culturally de ned as neither man nor women gt Biological males who become women by castration and adopt feminine gender norms TwoSpirit gt TwoSpirit amongst Plains Indian Groups gt In the tribe Zuni gt Refers to a male who adopts traditional gender roles of women gt Have sex of male but spirit of female Gender Equallity gt Our discussion of gender in Auburn in the year 2015 will be ltered through popular assumptions about quotequality of the sexesquot gt What is this equality given our insistence on stressing the differences between males and females from birth till death How should we be equal Where should we be equal 0 Friedl Model she rejected the thought that men are predestined to dominate women by studying public shared resources in 4 different places gt The contemporary movement towards equality is measured against the backdrop of the o This dichotomy refers to a strong differentiation between the home and the outside world 0 When domestic and public spheres are clearly separated public activities tend to have greater prestige than domestic ones do gt CC 20 Negotiating Work and Family in America by Dianna Shandy and Karine Moe o What is this reading all about All about a recent trend amongst highlyeducated women leaving occupations to return to the domestic sphere o What factors push women to quothead homequot instead of continuing work NEGATIVE The 100Hour Couple combine two jobs leaves less time together and with children Child Care expensive and hard to get good people The Second Shift work all day then come home to domestic responsibilities The Glass Ceiling always be a hindrances for women in the work world 0 What factors pull women to do so POSITIVE Being with the children Lower stress Sense of responsibility Nostalgia Group support Living within our means DomesticPublic Dichotomy gt Amongst the Kung less gendered dichotomy gt Amongst Auburnites there is a distinction but its meaning is increasingly negotiable gt In general as the argument goes male dominance are greater male prestige are associated with the masculinization of the public sphere and the feminization of the domestic sphere gt This engendering process corresponds to modes of production and division of labor in all human economies in terms of a continuum Foragers gt There is little gendered strati cation gt They have a simple division of labor hunting and gathering gt There is less of a publicdomestic dichotomy these spheres aren t necessarily separate gt Status of men is noticeable higher only when their contribution to subsistence is greater 0 It s rare for men to have a greater status Horticulturalists gt There is a more complex division of labor gt There are more gender distinctions gt Status of men is higher when women contribute much more or much less to subsistence gt gt 0 They are isolated from the public domain which men control If there is local warfare and economic scarcity male dominance is likely If there is external or no warfare or economic scarcity Matrilocality and matrilineality are more common and both work against male dominance Agriculturalists gt gt gt gt gt More gender strati cation More complex division of labor and political control Status of men is higher when they contribute more to the overall as well as the household economy PublicDomestic distinction is pronounced Women are considered a drain economically think about dowries or risk politically hence they are controlled and their access to important resources is limited lndustrialists gt gt gt Among the advance industrial societies gender strati cation persists Division of labor is complex but not inherently dependent on gender differences so it is more exible The status of men and women is higher when they contribute more the household and general economies The publicdomestic dichotomy persists though neither spaces is associated exclusively with males or females Women are less likely to be considered a drain economically or a risk politically hence women are less controlled by men and their access to important resources is not as limited as in preindustrial agricultural societies Kinks and Consequences of the Model gt VVV ln advanced societies the public sphere becomes a sphere of nominal equality but is it a masculinized or feminized sphere or something else entirely If a person is to succeed in the public sphere today must heshe be more like a man or must men be less like traditional men in relation to women who enter the public sphere To what extent do these distinctions still matter and how And what about the domestic sphere How is it affected by the changes in the public sphere gt Who performs the roles once associated with males and females in this sphere gt Is the feminization of poverty the increasing representation of women and their children among America s poorest people related to the collapse of the domestic sphere gt How do wealthy successful publicallyengaged people male and female handle domestic life and its demand Recent Shifts in Gender Norms and Roles gt Evidence suggest s that our society is in the midst of a reduction of male dominance and patriarchal values 1 2 3 Changing attitudes toward homosexuality and quotgender transgressionquot Changing attitudes toward male sexuality in terms of violence Changing attitudes toward female sexuality in terms of passivity Use of new gender models as forms of postcolonial social control and ethnocentric cultural critique of nonWestern populations
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