Bio Lecture 25+26: Animal Behavior
Bio Lecture 25+26: Animal Behavior Bio 211
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kiara Reyes on Wednesday November 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 211 at Northern Illinois University taught by Catherine Ausland in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Funds of Organismal Biology Lab in Biology at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 11/04/15
Lecture 25 8 26 Animal Behavior 1 a What is Behavior Behavior action carried out by muscles under control of the nervous system in response to a stimulus a triggerinternal response any external or internal factor that can in uence an organism Cue that triggers a response by an organism Necessary for animals to Maintain hemostasis control to survive Acquire food Avoid predators not die Find or attract mate to reproduce 1b How is it Studied How Why Tinbergen s 4 questions about animal behavior 1 What is the stimulus and how does the animals respond 2 How does the animal s experience when growingdeveloping in uence the response Questions about Proximate causesgt quotHowquot 3 How does it help the animals survive and reproduce 4 What is the evolutionary history of the behavior Questions about Ultimate causesgt quotWhyquot Ex Bird Migrationgt Observation Bird ies North in Spring and South in Fall 1 What s the stimulus and response How Seasonal Changes temperature day length hormonal changes that drive migration 2 How does the animals experience in uence the response How Birds may learn migration routes from their parents 3 How does it help the animals survive and reproduce Why Escape as unsuitable environment or gain access to food resource 4 What is the evolutionary history of the behavior Why Hypothesis Migration may have evolved as a way to take advantage of temporality abundant food resources 2 Types of Stimuli Animal 1 sending signal l Signall Animal 2 receiving signal transmission of a signal stimulus by one animal and reception by another C0mmunication 4 Modes of animals communication Visual Receiver animals see the signal Auditory Sender animals make a noise that is heard by the receiver Taetile physical contact Animals touch each other Chemical Sender animals produces molecules that are sensed by receiver Drosophila courtship behavior various communication stylemodes Ex Male Flies send out Orienting Tapping andor Singing to Female ies Bees doing different dances or ying around modes telling other bees the location of where the food is found Danger Blue Jay callssings out to warn other birds of a predator Auditory Signal 0 In school sh injuries to sh skin released molecules that other sense Chemical Signal sh hurtgt Bloodgt Other shes sense blood Tadpoles eat aquatic plants when dragon y larvae predators are present tadpoles eat less and grow less Experiment predator caged and tadpoles can t see it Result Tadpoles still don t eat and grow as much Conclusion Tadpoles sense chemical signals of predator Stimulus may start a xed action pattern continuing action till completed A series of quotprogramedquot behavior in response to a stimulus even if stimulus stops Ex Goose keeps retrieving an absent egg Mallard Duck continues courting after female leaves Bill shakegt Grunt Whistlegt Tail Shake 3 Innate vs Learned Behavior Innate Behavior All members of a population exhibit same behavior even if they develop under different conditions Developmentally xed and Inborn Learned Behavior Behavior of an individual is modi ed based on its speci c experience EX Its exposure to other animals Innate EX Singing by birds may be part innate and part learned Making sounds may be innate The speci c song unique to its species may be learned Young birds hear parents singing that learn and copy the song Imprinting connection combination of inner and learned Long lasting behavioral response formed to an individual or object EX Young waterfowl imprint on their mother shortly after hatching quotsensitive period Konrad Lorenz demonstrated imprinting in 1930 s During sensitive period young imprint to larger moving objects nearby young hatch sees boots imprint and follows boots Learning Association Learning association of a stimulus with a reward or punishment change in behavior EX Honey bee leaned to associate samedifferent with a reward Group 1 Same color Food Bees applied the same learned association Group 2 Different color Food to colorless patterns 0 Social Learning Observing and copying behaviors of other individuals EX Social Learning in primates Chimpanzees learn to make and use tools by watching other in their groups Vervet monkeys in Africa make different alarm vocalization depending on Type of predator young s will learn thingscalls from the adults 0 Back to quotWhyquot questions of behavior research 3amp4 survive and reproduce evolutionary Behavior is subject to natural selection Agnatically encoding behavior that increase tness will be passes no more often 4 Natural Selection and Behavior Foraging is a balance between Finding enough food to stay alive and reproduce Foraging behaviors for locating and obtaining food Not using too much energy or taking too many risks to nd that food Optimal Foraging Natural selection should favor behaviors that Maximizes Bene ts food obtaining and Minimize Costgt Energy use Predation risk Foraging Cost have to use energy to locate and obtain food gtIf energy used in foraging behavior is greater then energy obtained from food behavior not likely to be passed on Have to avoid predators gt If foraging behavior often expose an animal to predators its less likely to reproduce Ex Elk in Yellow store before wolf reintroductions gtalways eating grasslandguard low and unaware Elk in Yellow store after wolf reintroductions gteating less grassland increase grasslandmore aware and on guard Result less browsing more habitat for other animals and lower elk reproduction 5 Mating System Monogamy 1 mate for males and females Polygyny gt1 more then 1 females 1 male 1 male mating many females Polyandry gt1 more then 1 males 2 female 1 female mating many males Polygynandry multiple mates by both male and females males and females mating other males and females Polygany animal mating system 6 Altruism Behavioral traits evolve by natural selection if they increase tness So why does altruism exist Behavior that can reduce an animal s tness but increase tness of another member of the population Ex Ground squirrels call when they see a predator to warn others but can be heard from predators around A allele becomes prevalent in succeeding generations of population in 2 basic way 1 By increasing it carriers own tness 2 And by increasing tness of relative with whom it shares many genesgtKin Selection Ex Mother ground hog on guard with babies nearby learning from her Her warning others of predators risk is putting herself and the babies in danger with the predators hearing and seeing her and the babies
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