week 10 notes
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Fry on Wednesday November 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHYS 215 at Ball State University taught by Zamlauski-Tucker in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Human Physiology in Science at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 11/04/15
Ema r Physiology 215 Week 10 notes g r E 102615 Equot 2 ReVIew in TLC Muscles involved in breathing 3 am a y I o Diaphragm E g 1 22 o Intercostal r A 7 o Scanlines 2 1 W 7 0 Lung volumes E LEWTTTT TT 1 quotTEHETT quotTTT 0 TV tidal volume Fw 0 VC Vital capacity 1quot quot O VOLlEermhe eThumsnn LbElr39l39ill39i o ERV expiratory reserve volume 7 0 RV residual volume I Mimi o FEV l forced expiratory volume In 1 secoinduwmmmwmrlmwl EMF I Elm rltwrrlsmwmil LEIEll m l Wml ilmmdlum firm Emil vent39lat39on EHEIFumhmlr l u np wmi ml wugiulcmmy Elm mil Anatomic dead space air within conductive airway e tlwutnilsme iav39ailable for Fig1 gas exchange Alveolar ventilation TVDead space volume respiratory rate 0 Pulmonary ventilation TVrespiratory rate Respiratory Problems 0 Chronic bronchitis bronchitis is an in ammation of the lining of the bronchial tubes When the bronchi are in amed andor infected less air is coughed up This is bronchitis o Cigarette smoking is by far the most common cause of chronic bronchitis Asthma airway obstruction due to o Thickening of the airway walls 0 Plugging of the airways by excessive secretion of mucous o Hyperresponsiveness of the airways leading to constriction of the smaller airways caused by spasm of the smooth muscle in the airway walls Emphysema a chronic lung condition in which alveoli or air sacs may be destroyed narrowed collapsed stretched or overin ated o Overin ation of the airsacs is a result of a breakdown of the walls of the alveoli and causes a decrease in respiratory function and breathlessness Damage to the air sacs is irreversible and results in permanent holes in the tissues of the lower lungs Asthma Attack Allergen binds to lgE antibodies Binding triggers the release of histamine and leukotrienes from mast cells 0 These substances 0 Cause the smooth muscle cells of the bronchi to contract narrowing the bronchi This is the early phase 0 Attract an accumulation of in ammatory cells especially eosinophils and the production of mucus This is the late phase With repeated attacks the lining of the bronchi becomes damaged Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD Estimated to affect 32 million people in the US and is the fourth leading cause of death in this country Patients typically have symptoms of both chronic bronchitis and emphysema but the classic triad also includes asthma Most of the time COPD is secondary to tobacco abuse although cystic brosis and some other disorders may be causes as well Hypoxiaoxygen de ciency in the body Anemic hypoxia a reduction in the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood It is caused by a reduction in the amount of hemoglobin in the blood or a reduced number of red blood cells Circulatory hypoxia stagnant hypoxia oxygen de ciency due to poor circulation of the blood or poor blood ow Examples of this are high G forces prolonged sitting in one position or hanging in a harness cold temperatures and positive pressure breathing Histotoxic hypoxia the inability of the tissues to use oxygen Ex Carbon monoxide and cyanide poisoning Hypoxic hypoxia a reduction in the amount of oxygen passing into the blood It is caused by a reduction in oxygen pressure in the lungs by a reduced gas exchange area exposure to high altitude or by lung disease 0 Decrease in ability to exchange oxygen and decrease in adaption of a ude o Resting and giving time for body to adjust to altitude can solve this Changes in breathing Eupnea normal breathing Dyspnea abnormal or labored breathing Hyperpnea increase in ventilation that matched oxygen needs Apnea cessation of breathing Hypoventilation disease in ventilation that leads to elevated blood carbon dioxide occurs if blood C02 levels fall Hyperventilation increase in ventilation that exceeds the 02 needs occurs if blood C02 levels go to high Blood C02 Hypocapnia below normal blood C02 Hypercapnia excessive C02 in the blood Majority of 02 is bound to Hydrogen Boyle s law 0 P1V1 P2V2 Equals tidal volume x respiratory rate Equadls tidal qume dead space volume x respiratory Irate Erah air Imm Il s ular39 af i j IFW 39 39dEE p A wlume 150 ml Almlar a r a LLI r nxp After I na l lra39tliam high expiratinn The Rumba I Wm Ftp 39 m39 munme hr 7 n W W V i Ij jilfn r mimic rmla lm aw allmim Eli I39m Huhmad and Eli MRIslim Fallmad Fr lsh I39tlmuiphlmlulirthit IIIl mt ih l 39ld It2 and H12 Miilh thg Hand ring u 1 I RESPIRATORY DEAD SPACE PULMONARY AIL VEOILAR TIDALVOLUME RATE VOLUME VENTILATION VENTILATION BREATHING PAWEIRN Iml lbreamhfl breathsfmim ml Imlfmiinl mlimiml Quiet breafmhing at rest 500 12 150 6000 4200 Deep slow breathtan 1200 5 150 6000 5250 Shallow rapid breathing 150 40 150 6000 0 Pia roam hamglo bi 11 aa iumtioln E E E E Eaquot E E 0 Carbon dioxide C02 picked up at the tissue level is transported in the blood to the lungs in three ways 1 physically dissolved 2 bound to hemoglobin Hb and 3 as bicarbonate ion HCO3 Hemoglobin is present only in the red blood cells as is carbonic anhydrase the enzyme that catalyzes the production of HCO3 The H generated during the production of HCO3 also binds to Hb o The reactions that occur at the tissue level are reversed at the pulmonary level where C02 diffuses out of the blood to enter the alveoli I Marla11 m lirii Eratoma 11mm c r 1 V P at wit1min Mariam 1 Anllrilil Fm Ind mldlrtli39 39339 V g I mumlull lavad1 tnmpeirntum mpm m E l m In 2 new i39llirliel i39 IlsaHa 1 El 1 E 1 E 1 all 1 239 1 El R f I 1121 4r FEFGEI WE hamoglubin saturation 3 D 113 EC 39 E as 511 at 11 a 916111111me FD oi blond 11111111 H m aIu EI m 39 1 LinnEng FEE mm Hg 11 E13 EMJIl39I D 1min u I 102615
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