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Week 12 Lecture Notes

by: Haley J Schuhl

Week 12 Lecture Notes PSY 223

Marketplace > Illinois State University > Psychlogy > PSY 223 > Week 12 Lecture Notes
Haley J Schuhl
GPA 3.59

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It's been brought to my attention that there are multiple copies of this and a couple other materials. They are exactly the same be careful you don't buy multiple copies! Sorry for the inconvenience.
Social Psychology
Glenn Reeder
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley J Schuhl on Wednesday November 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 223 at Illinois State University taught by Glenn Reeder in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Illinois State University.


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Date Created: 11/04/15
Week  12  Lecture  Notes   Monday  11/2/15   • Don’t  forget,  EXAM  4  THIS  FRIDAY   • Heightened  arousal   o Aggression  often  occurs  where  there  is  physical  activity  and  arousal   o Excitation  transfer  theory:  arousal  from  almost  any  source  can   increase  aggression,  doesn’t  matter  how  you  get  aroused   • Pornography   o Filmed  sex:  may  create  arousal,  it  may  also  create  negative  emotions,   creating  both  increases  aggression   o Sexy  films  creating  only  positive  emotions  (like  a  romantic  comedy  for   example)  are  not  harmful   o Violent  pornography:  the  main  problem  is  the  violence,  not  the  sex;   the  film  outcome  matters  (someone  gets  happy  or  sad,  when  the   outcome  of  the  recipient  of  the  sexual  violence  is  positive,  the   message  is  especially  harmful)   o Violent  porn  promotes  rape  myths  (such  as  the  idea  that  deep  down   women  want  to  be  raped  or  will  enjoy  it  or  could  stop  it  if  they  really   wanted  to)   o Rapist  profile:  turned  on  by  violent  pornography,  and  accepting  of   rape  myths   § Ted  Bundy  fit  this  profile.  He  raped,  tortured,  and  killed  as   many  as  30  women.   • General  aggression  model:     • Subculture  of  violence   o http://www.prisonexp.orn        àtrailer  of  the  movie  based  on  the  Standford   prison  experiment   o Zimbardo’s  Stanford  prison  experiment:  Participants  assigned  to  be   correctional  officers  or  prisoners,  screened  out  people  with  psychological   problems,  tried  to  pick  the  most  “normal”  people,  through  the  experiment   the  guards  were  transformed  into  bad  people,  the  situation  brought  out   violence   o Normal  people  in  a  subculture  of  violence  (prison  for  example)  become   aggressive   • Crowding  and  Deindividuation   o People  in  a  crowd  or  mob  can  become  more  aggressive  due  to  arousal,   anonymity  (losing  a  sense  of  individual  identity)  à  deindividuation,   reduced  feelings  of  responsibility   o Zimbardo’s  abandoned  car  experiment:  People  passing  the  abandoned   car  would  steal  things.  In  New  York  City,  all  the  stuff  on  the  car  was  gone   within  24  hours.  He  did  the  same  experiment  in  a  smaller  town  and  a  whole   week  went  by  and  nobody  stole  anything  from  the  car.   o Zimbardo’s  lab  experiment:  some  participants  wore  robes  that   covered  their  face  (similar  to  what  the  KKK  wore)  while  the  control  group   wore  their  own  clothes  and  wore  a  name  tag  and  all  participants  were  asked   to  deliver  shocks  (duration  wasn’t  specified)  and  the  people  who  were   deindividuated  delivered  longer  shocks   • How  can  we  prevent  aggression?   o Reward  nonaggressive  behavior,  “catch”  your  kids  doing  something  right   o Adult  attention  is  a  powerful  reward  for  children,  don’t  ignore   nonaggressive  behavior  and  “reward”  them  by  paying  attention  when   they  do  something  bad,  instead  you  can  ignore  minor  aggressive  act  so   they  don’t  get  that  attention  they  want.     Wednesday  11/4/15   • Physical  punishment   o Can  inflict  some  psychological  damage   o Memories  of  spankings  related  to  low  self  esteem   o People  can  recall  the  whipping  but  don’t  remember  the  reason  they   were  punished   o Usually  not  effective,  especially  as  punishment  for  physical  aggression   § May  be  viewed  as  undeserves  which  creates  frustration,  which   could  just  lead  to  further  aggression   § It  models  aggression  for  the  child,  children  look  to  their   parents  as  an  example  and  they  will  learn  that  they  can  punish   others  with  hitting   • Non-­‐physical  punishment  (such  as  revoking  privileges  or  time  outs)     o Can  be  effective  IF…   § Punishment  comes  immediately  after  the  undesirable  behavior   § The  parent  explains  why  they  are  getting  punished   • Should  angry  people  blow  off  steam?   • Catharsis  hypothesis  and  it’s  hydraulic  model  (recall  this  from  earlier  in  the   semester)     o This  hypothesis  predicts  that  blowing  off  steam  in  imagined,   observed,  or  actual  aggression  will  reduce  further  aggression   o Research  shows  that  cathartic  actions  do  NOT  reduce  aggression,   although  they  may  create  positive  affect  in  the  short  term  (but  they   are  often  more  likely  to  aggress  again)     o Should  we  bottle  up  anger?  NO   o We  can  express  our  anger  constructively  by  being  assertive,  telling   people  who  are  bothering  us  to  stop,  count  to  10   • Parents  can  discourage  aggression…   o By  modeling  nonaggressive  behavior,  showing  compromise  with  their   partner,  participate  in  perspective  taking,  good  conflict  resolution   technique,  be  a  good  example  for  them   o Offering  nonviolent  TV  options  (you  won’t  be  able  to  control   completely  what  they  watch  but  you  can  encourage  TV  low  in   violence)   o Watching  TV  with  your  children,  criticize  violence,  and  stress  the   harmful  consequences  of  the  violence  in  the  TV  show   o Being  a  good  parents  is  hard  work!   • Social  skills  training   o Teaching  people  to  be  courteous  and  to  resolve  conflict  effectively   • Incompatible  responses   o Some  behaviors  are  incompatible  with  feeling  angry  such  as  laughing   o One  mother  would  take  two  arguing  children  and  would  sit  them   across  from  each  other  at  the  table  and  wouldn’t  let  them  leave  the   table  until  their  mad  each  other  laugh  à  they  were  no  longer  angry   • Broader  approaches  to  reducing  violence   o (1)  Provide  economic  opportunities  to  others  à  this  lowers  crime  and   violence,  but  how  to  we  create  these  opportunities?   o (2)  Changing  societal  attitudes  like  sexual  assault  education   o (3)  Technology  changes  such  as  DNA  testing  has  lead  to  more   convictions  of  criminals,  more  cell  phones/cameras/surveillance  has   lead  to  more  convictions  and  might  also  prevent  people  from   committing  crimes  in  the  first  place  (since  they  know  they’ll  get   caught)   o (4)  Increase  internet  access  associated  with  lower  levels  of  sexual   assault   • “All  that  is  necessary  for  the  triumph  of  evil  is  that  good  men  and  women  do   nothing”     • GOOD  LUCK  ON  THE  EXAM  


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