Week 12 Lecture Notes
Week 12 Lecture Notes PSY 223
Popular in Social Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley J Schuhl on Wednesday November 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 223 at Illinois State University taught by Glenn Reeder in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 11/04/15
Week 12 Lecture Notes Monday 11/2/15 • Don’t forget, EXAM 4 THIS FRIDAY • Heightened arousal o Aggression often occurs where there is physical activity and arousal o Excitation transfer theory: arousal from almost any source can increase aggression, doesn’t matter how you get aroused • Pornography o Filmed sex: may create arousal, it may also create negative emotions, creating both increases aggression o Sexy films creating only positive emotions (like a romantic comedy for example) are not harmful o Violent pornography: the main problem is the violence, not the sex; the film outcome matters (someone gets happy or sad, when the outcome of the recipient of the sexual violence is positive, the message is especially harmful) o Violent porn promotes rape myths (such as the idea that deep down women want to be raped or will enjoy it or could stop it if they really wanted to) o Rapist profile: turned on by violent pornography, and accepting of rape myths § Ted Bundy fit this profile. He raped, tortured, and killed as many as 30 women. • General aggression model: • Subculture of violence o http://www.prisonexp.orn àtrailer of the movie based on the Standford prison experiment o Zimbardo’s Stanford prison experiment: Participants assigned to be correctional officers or prisoners, screened out people with psychological problems, tried to pick the most “normal” people, through the experiment the guards were transformed into bad people, the situation brought out violence o Normal people in a subculture of violence (prison for example) become aggressive • Crowding and Deindividuation o People in a crowd or mob can become more aggressive due to arousal, anonymity (losing a sense of individual identity) à deindividuation, reduced feelings of responsibility o Zimbardo’s abandoned car experiment: People passing the abandoned car would steal things. In New York City, all the stuff on the car was gone within 24 hours. He did the same experiment in a smaller town and a whole week went by and nobody stole anything from the car. o Zimbardo’s lab experiment: some participants wore robes that covered their face (similar to what the KKK wore) while the control group wore their own clothes and wore a name tag and all participants were asked to deliver shocks (duration wasn’t specified) and the people who were deindividuated delivered longer shocks • How can we prevent aggression? o Reward nonaggressive behavior, “catch” your kids doing something right o Adult attention is a powerful reward for children, don’t ignore nonaggressive behavior and “reward” them by paying attention when they do something bad, instead you can ignore minor aggressive act so they don’t get that attention they want. Wednesday 11/4/15 • Physical punishment o Can inflict some psychological damage o Memories of spankings related to low self esteem o People can recall the whipping but don’t remember the reason they were punished o Usually not effective, especially as punishment for physical aggression § May be viewed as undeserves which creates frustration, which could just lead to further aggression § It models aggression for the child, children look to their parents as an example and they will learn that they can punish others with hitting • Non-‐physical punishment (such as revoking privileges or time outs) o Can be effective IF… § Punishment comes immediately after the undesirable behavior § The parent explains why they are getting punished • Should angry people blow off steam? • Catharsis hypothesis and it’s hydraulic model (recall this from earlier in the semester) o This hypothesis predicts that blowing off steam in imagined, observed, or actual aggression will reduce further aggression o Research shows that cathartic actions do NOT reduce aggression, although they may create positive affect in the short term (but they are often more likely to aggress again) o Should we bottle up anger? NO o We can express our anger constructively by being assertive, telling people who are bothering us to stop, count to 10 • Parents can discourage aggression… o By modeling nonaggressive behavior, showing compromise with their partner, participate in perspective taking, good conflict resolution technique, be a good example for them o Offering nonviolent TV options (you won’t be able to control completely what they watch but you can encourage TV low in violence) o Watching TV with your children, criticize violence, and stress the harmful consequences of the violence in the TV show o Being a good parents is hard work! • Social skills training o Teaching people to be courteous and to resolve conflict effectively • Incompatible responses o Some behaviors are incompatible with feeling angry such as laughing o One mother would take two arguing children and would sit them across from each other at the table and wouldn’t let them leave the table until their mad each other laugh à they were no longer angry • Broader approaches to reducing violence o (1) Provide economic opportunities to others à this lowers crime and violence, but how to we create these opportunities? o (2) Changing societal attitudes like sexual assault education o (3) Technology changes such as DNA testing has lead to more convictions of criminals, more cell phones/cameras/surveillance has lead to more convictions and might also prevent people from committing crimes in the first place (since they know they’ll get caught) o (4) Increase internet access associated with lower levels of sexual assault • “All that is necessary for the triumph of evil is that good men and women do nothing” • GOOD LUCK ON THE EXAM