ANTH 101 Notes for Week 11
ANTH 101 Notes for Week 11 ANTH 101 (Anthropology Julie Jenkins)
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ANTH 101 (Anthropology Julie Jenkins)
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nichole Notetaker on Sunday March 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 101 (Anthropology Julie Jenkins) at Ball State University taught by Dr. Julie Jenkins in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Intro to cultural anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Ball State University.
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What is Karma?
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Date Created: 03/27/16
3/22/16 Social Communities: Family and Marriage Family ● Kinship ○ Culturally constructed ■ Who is considered varies across cultures ■ How we relate to our kin also varies ○ Multifunctional: serves multiple purposes ■ Organizes relationships and obligation; who you live with; division of labor; who raises the children Kabre Kinship ● Wife borrowed by husband ● Kids owned by mother’s brother when young, then gradually transition to being owned by their father ● Food is central; sets up reciprocity; father provides food (this is part of the work he must do to earn the ownership of his children ● The mother’s brother is central to the Kabre’s patrilineal society ○ The children are closer to their mother’s patrilineage at first; the mother’s patrilineage claims the children because they cared for their mother, and have therefore proven that they can care for a child the father must earn this right ○ Over time, there is a shift to children being considered part of their father’s patrilineage ○ The mother’s brother has a more affectionate relationship with the children than their father does Lineage ● Unilineal: kinship traced through one side ○ Only the father or mother’s side is considered ○ CAN’T be descendant from both mother and father ○ Patrilineal: kinship through the father’s line ■ Women are part of it, but they gain membership through their fathers ■ Children are considered to be part of their father’s line, not their mother’s ■ The Kabre use this kind of lineage in their kinship system ○ Matrilineal: kinship through the mother’s line ● Establish clans within a community ● Clan vs. Lineage ○ Clans: ■ You can have many lineages in a clan ■ Stipulated descent: lineages are related through a further removed ancestor ● There is no evidence that can be pointed to ● Usually the ancestor is from the time of creation ○ Lineages: ■ Demonstrated descent: proof of being descended from one ancestor ● These systems help organize the transition of property and inheritance ○ Property owned by one person in the lineage or clan will remain within the clan or lineage after death ○ Sons inherit so that family wealth stays within the family in a patrilineal system ● These systems also help structure relationships and obligations ○ Patrilineal: children go to their father for money for big purchases (house, college, etc) ○ Matrilineal: children go to their mother’s brother for money for things like houses and college, because the mother doesn’t have any money of her own “Cousins” ● Parallel cousins: the father’s brother’s children in a patrilineage, mother’s brother’s children in a matrilineage ● Cross cousins: the father’s sister’s children in a patrilineage, the mother’s brother’s children in a matrilineage ● Parallel cousins are considered to be in the same kin group, so they cannot marry ○ However, cross cousins are not considered to be in the same kin group, so it is acceptable for them to marry In the above diagram, triangles are males, circles are females, and EGO is the subject that the other shapes are related to. Bilateral Descent ● Definition: kinship traced through both the mother and the father ○ Both sides carry equal importance Division of Labor in the Kabre ● Men have the productive task of cultivating sorgum ● Women have the task of cooking for the family, and processing the sorgum ● The husband and wife are reciprocal and equal, but there is a tradeoff ○ During the rainy season, the men can’t cultivate the fields, so the women contribute more and take on more responsibility ○ If the sorgum runs out during the winter, he husband asks the wife for something she made that he can sell at the market in exchange for food Marriage ● Marriage is present in every society except: ○ The Nayar in India ○ The Na in China ● Marriage varies dramatically through: ○ Number of partners ○ Rules for choosing a partner ○ Who lives with who ○ Obligations ○ Rights ○ Values of marriage ○ Negotiations ● Establish affinal relationships (relationships with inlaws) Selecting a Spouse ● All cultures practice some kind of exogamy (“out marriage”; marrying outside of one particular group (clan, community, kinship, etc.)) ○ Historical benefit: intermarriage could improve relations with neighboring groups and help form alliances ○ Incest is taboo ● Many cultures also practice endogamy (“in marriage”; marriage within a specific group (NOT kin)) ○ This is done for a variety of reasons ■ Consolidate familial power ■ Maintain “purity” ■ Spread a specific religion ■ Retain family status (class) 3/24/16 Marriage Continued Death in a Unilineal Descent System ● Levirate marriage: when a woman’s husband dies, she may be married to another man in his kin group ○ This is done to keep children and materials within the family ● Sororate marriage: when a married woman in a patrilineage dies, her kin group will replace her with another woman ○ This is done to retain the affinal relationship ● Both of these practices are fairly uncommon Kabre Favored Marriage Alliances ● Ikpanture (gift reciprocity) is one way to choose a partner ○ Two people may exchange so much and so often, that they eventually decide to exchange a son and a daughter ● FZD (Father Sister Daughter) ○ An individual marries their patrilineal cross cousin ○ This is NOT seen as incest ○ This is done to protect possessions and alliances ○ It can be seen as “returning” the gift of a wife ● Is love important? ○ Everything they do seems to be to further their society and maintain economic relationships ○ Maybe not love, but mutual interdependency leads to respect and caring ○ Limited choice ○ Love is a secondary motivation Why do we have only 1 word for love? ● It can have multiple meanings: ○ Taking someone else’s wants and needs into consideration (this can be seen as compassion) ○ A chemical reaction in the brain ○ Joy or happiness attached to someone or something ● The idea that you have to know extreme pain in order to know extreme love ● Love can change character depending on who or what it is relating to ● Kabre connection: ○ They recognize a need or want and fulfill it via exchange ■ Back and forth over time ○ There is a reciprocal need for what singularly gendered persons come to lose through the initiation process (androgynous children become just male or female) ○ Reciprocation leads to love among friends, but family doesn’t have to earn love in U.S. culture Negotiating Marriage ● Bride wealth: an engaged groom’s family provides gifts and resources to the bride’s family in order to compensate them for the loss of her contribution to the household (practiced by the Kabre) ● Bride service: an engaged groom will provide labor for the bride’s family to compensate them for the loss of her contributions (practiced by the Kabre) ● Dowry: the bride’s family provides gifts/resources to the groom’s family to compensate them for the financial burden of taking on another woman ● What do dowries and bride wealths say about women? ○ Dowries ■ Women don’t have value and grooms need encouragement to marry them ■ Women are seen as an economic burden ● Their only contribution is their reproductive ability ■ The groom’s family can ask for more money after the marriage and threaten the bride’s safety so that her parents will pay up ■ Dowry marriages are illegal, but still happen because they are seen as traditional ■ Has a strong association with domestic violence ○ Bride wealths ■ Trading items for a wife can put a value on her Number of Partners ● Monogamy: having one spouse ○ Most prevalent in practice worldwide because it is the less expensive option ● Polygamy: having multiple spouses ○ Historically more accepted, but also more expensive ● Polygyny: having multiple wives ○ Most common form of polygamy ○ Sororal polygyny: marrying biological sisters (not your own) ■ NOT “sister wives” ● With sister wives there is an expectation for the wives to act like sisters ○ Patriarchal and oppressive to women? ■ Maybe sometimes, but not inherently ■ In Ghana, the wives had more power than the husband ● Because work was divided among the wives, they had time off where they could go earn their own money that their husband had no control over ● Could be that a poor man had rich wives ● The women didn’t think in competitive terms until it came to their children ● It was the husband’s job to maintain equitable relationships ○ If one of his wives was unhappy and left, his status would go down