New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

ANTH 101 Notes for Week 11

by: Nichole Notetaker

ANTH 101 Notes for Week 11 ANTH 101 (Anthropology Julie Jenkins)

Nichole Notetaker
GPA 3.86
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Intro to cultural anthropology

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Intro to cultural anthropology notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

These notes cover kinship cross culturally: family and marriages. I have included a graph to clarify the difference between cross cousins and parallel cousins.
Intro to cultural anthropology
Dr. Julie Jenkins
Class Notes
ANTH, anth 101, Anthropology, anthropology 101




Popular in Intro to cultural anthropology

Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nichole Notetaker on Sunday March 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 101 (Anthropology Julie Jenkins) at Ball State University taught by Dr. Julie Jenkins in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Intro to cultural anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Ball State University.

Similar to ANTH 101 (Anthropology Julie Jenkins) at BSU

Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr


Reviews for ANTH 101 Notes for Week 11


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/27/16
3/22/16 Social Communities: Family and Marriage Family ● Kinship ○ Culturally constructed ■ Who is considered varies across cultures ■ How we relate to our kin also varies  ○ Multifunctional: serves multiple purposes ■ Organizes relationships and obligation; who you  live with; division of labor; who raises the children Kabre Kinship ● Wife borrowed by husband ● Kids owned by mother’s brother when young, then gradually transition to being  owned by their father ● Food is central; sets up reciprocity; father provides food (this is part of the work  he must do to earn the ownership of his children ● The mother’s brother is central to the Kabre’s patrilineal society ○ The children are closer to their mother’s patrilineage at first; the  mother’s patrilineage claims the children because they cared for their mother,  and have therefore proven that they can care for a child­­ the father must earn  this right ○ Over time, there is a shift to children being considered part of their father’s patrilineage ○ The mother’s brother has a more affectionate relationship with the  children than their father does Lineage ● Unilineal: kinship traced through one side  ○ Only the father or mother’s side is considered ○ CAN’T be descendant from both mother and father ○ Patrilineal: kinship through the father’s line ■ Women are part of it, but they gain membership  through their fathers ■ Children are considered to be part of their father’s  line, not their mother’s ■ The Kabre use this kind of lineage in their kinship  system ○ Matrilineal: kinship through the mother’s line ● Establish clans within a community ● Clan vs. Lineage ○ Clans: ■ You can have many lineages in a clan ■ Stipulated descent: lineages are related through a further removed ancestor ● There is no evidence that can be  pointed to ● Usually the ancestor is from the time of creation ○ Lineages: ■ Demonstrated descent: proof of being descended  from one ancestor ● These systems help organize the transition of property and inheritance ○ Property owned by one person in the lineage or clan will remain  within the clan or lineage after death ○ Sons inherit so that family wealth stays within the family in a  patrilineal system ● These systems also help structure relationships and obligations ○ Patrilineal: children go to their father for money for big purchases  (house, college, etc) ○ Matrilineal: children go to their mother’s brother for money for  things like houses and college, because the mother doesn’t have any money of  her own “Cousins” ● Parallel cousins: the father’s brother’s children in a patrilineage, mother’s  brother’s children in a matrilineage ● Cross cousins: the father’s sister’s children in a patrilineage, the mother’s  brother’s children in a matrilineage ● Parallel cousins are considered to be in the same kin group, so they cannot  marry ○ However, cross cousins are not considered to be in the same kin  group, so it is acceptable for them to marry  In the above diagram, triangles are males, circles are females, and EGO is the subject that the  other shapes are related to. Bilateral Descent ● Definition: kinship traced through both the mother and the father ○ Both sides carry equal importance Division of Labor in the Kabre ● Men have the productive task of cultivating sorgum ● Women have the task of cooking for the family, and processing the sorgum ● The husband and wife are reciprocal and equal, but there is a trade­off ○ During the rainy season, the men can’t cultivate the fields, so the  women contribute more and take on more responsibility ○ If the sorgum runs out during the winter, he husband asks the wife for something she made that he can sell at the market in exchange for food Marriage ● Marriage is present in every society except: ○ The Nayar in India ○ The Na in China ● Marriage varies dramatically through: ○ Number of partners ○ Rules for choosing a partner ○ Who lives with who ○ Obligations ○ Rights ○ Values of marriage ○ Negotiations ● Establish affinal relationships (relationships with in­laws) Selecting a Spouse ● All cultures practice some kind of exogamy (“out marriage”; marrying outside of  one particular group (clan, community, kinship, etc.)) ○ Historical benefit: intermarriage could improve relations with  neighboring groups and help form alliances ○ Incest is taboo ● Many cultures also practice endogamy (“in marriage”; marriage within a specific  group (NOT kin)) ○ This is done for a variety of reasons ■ Consolidate familial power ■ Maintain “purity” ■ Spread a specific religion ■ Retain family status (class) 3/24/16 Marriage Continued Death in a Unilineal Descent System ● Levirate marriage: when a woman’s husband dies, she may be married to  another man in his kin group ○ This is done to keep children and materials within the family ● Sororate marriage: when a married woman in a patrilineage dies, her kin group  will replace her with another woman ○ This is done to retain the affinal relationship ● Both of these practices are fairly uncommon Kabre Favored Marriage Alliances ● Ikpanture (gift reciprocity) is one way to choose a partner ○ Two people may exchange so much and so often, that they  eventually decide to exchange a son and a daughter ● FZD (Father Sister Daughter) ○ An individual marries their patrilineal cross cousin ○ This is NOT seen as incest ○ This is done to protect possessions and alliances ○ It can be seen as “returning” the gift of a wife ● Is love important? ○ Everything they do seems to be to further their society and  maintain economic relationships ○ Maybe not love, but mutual interdependency leads to respect and  caring ○ Limited choice ○ Love is a secondary motivation Why do we have only 1 word for love? ● It can have multiple meanings: ○ Taking someone else’s wants and needs into consideration (this  can be seen as compassion) ○ A chemical reaction in the brain ○ Joy or happiness attached to someone or something ● The idea that you have to know extreme pain in order to know extreme love ● Love can change character depending on who or what it is relating to ● Kabre connection: ○ They recognize a need or want and fulfill it via exchange ■ Back and forth over time ○ There is a reciprocal need for what singularly gendered persons  come to lose through the initiation process (androgynous children become just  male or female) ○ Reciprocation leads to love among friends, but family doesn’t have to earn love in U.S. culture Negotiating Marriage ● Bride wealth: an engaged groom’s family provides gifts and resources to the  bride’s family in order to compensate them for the loss of her contribution to the  household (practiced by the Kabre) ● Bride service: an engaged groom will provide labor for the bride’s family to  compensate them for the loss of her contributions (practiced by the Kabre) ● Dowry: the bride’s family provides gifts/resources to the groom’s family to  compensate them for the financial burden of taking on another woman ● What do dowries and bride wealths say about women? ○ Dowries ■ Women don’t have value and grooms need  encouragement to marry them ■ Women are seen as an economic burden ● Their only contribution is their  reproductive ability ■ The groom’s family can ask for more money after  the marriage and threaten the bride’s safety so that her parents will pay  up ■ Dowry marriages are illegal, but still happen  because they are seen as traditional ■ Has a strong association with domestic violence ○ Bride wealths ■ Trading items for a wife can put a value on her Number of Partners ● Monogamy: having one spouse ○ Most prevalent in practice worldwide because it is the less  expensive option ● Polygamy: having multiple spouses ○ Historically more accepted, but also more expensive ● Polygyny: having multiple wives ○ Most common form of polygamy ○ Sororal polygyny: marrying biological sisters (not your own) ■ NOT “sister wives” ● With sister wives there is an  expectation for the wives to act like sisters ○ Patriarchal and oppressive to women? ■ Maybe sometimes, but not inherently ■ In Ghana, the wives had more power than the  husband ● Because work was divided among  the wives, they had time off where they could go earn their own  money that their husband had no control over ● Could be that a poor man had rich  wives ● The women didn’t think in  competitive terms until it came to their children ● It was the husband’s job to maintain  equitable relationships ○ If one of his wives  was unhappy and left, his status would go down


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.