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PA Physiology (11) With Class Notes

by: aleavick

PA Physiology (11) With Class Notes KINS 2010

Marketplace > University of Georgia > Kinesiology > KINS 2010 > PA Physiology 11 With Class Notes
GPA 3.8
Kinesiology 2010
Dr Schmidt

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I couldn't figure out how to edit the document in an effective and organized way. If you need chapter 11 with Mr. Schmidt's comments here it is! What is on the study guide is just what is on the sl...
Kinesiology 2010
Dr Schmidt
Class Notes
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by aleavick on Wednesday November 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to KINS 2010 at University of Georgia taught by Dr Schmidt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Kinesiology 2010 in Kinesiology at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 11/04/15
Class Notes Chapter 11 Physical Activity Physiology Learning Objectives Describe the goals of exercise physiology List key principles of the discipline and their practical appHcanns Understand important principles of exercise training and the skeletal muscle and cardiovascular system changes that occur with acute and chronic training Exercise Physiology The study of acute physiological responses to PA and the changes in physiological responses to chronic PA Acute short term Ex The Flu Acute responses what happens to the body when you are doing the physical activity Ex If running for an hour what are the joint responses Chronic long term hard to get rid of Ex diabetes Ex Running chronic would be what happens over a month of running what changes does you body go through Exercise physiologists apply principles of biology and chemistry to understand how the body responds to PA Foundation for conditioning tness and rehabilitation programs Goals of Exercise Physiology To understand 1 How to enhance physical performance 2 How to improve physical function in particular environments ex High temperaturealtitude 3 How PA and exercise improve health and tness 4 How exercise can be used to treat or prevent disease and alleviate symptoms of disease 5 Adaptions in human anatomy and physiology in response to PAExercise Research Methods in Physiology of Physical Activity Laboratory Ergometers Treadmills leg and arm cycles etc Something that can measure the workload Oxygen uptake Gas analyzers V02 max Measuring oxygen coZ productions in the body while you are exercising Body composition Methods includeUnderwater weighing calipers bioelectrical impedance and DEXA Biochemical Blood samples and muscle biopsies Animal Models Can learn different things that you can t do with humans Fieldwork Technoogica advances have made eldwork more practical Measure peoples PA etc Real World measurements Skeletal Muscles Terminology Muscular strength vs endurance Muscle strength you can maximal move in one rep max squat Muscle endurance how many times you can do a certain percentage of your maximum sometric vs lsotonic vs lsokinetic Isometric contracting the muscle but no movement lsotonic contraction but there is joint movement include concentric and eccentric these are types of isotonic lsokinetic Machines that force you to go a set speed with the contractions Eccentric vs Concentric contract Eccentric lengthening muscles Concentric shortening muscle 5 Important points Different muscle ber types Adaptations to resistance training Key training principles TopHat All other things being equal which leg muscle ber type would be most bene cial to have if you are a sprinter A Type B Type D Type III Muscle Biopsy How we can study muscle ber types Small Need Muscle ber 1 Slow incision in person s muscle that you want to test le punch it in and slice a part of the muscle types twitchType 1Slow oxidative Twitches more slowly Doesn t generate as much force lt s fuel source is oxidative so depends on sources of oxygen Don t generate a lot of force But can keep on going and going 2 Fast twitch 2 Type 2a Fast oxidativeglycolytic Fast twitch Not as much force as 2x Oxidative and Glycolytic lnbetween Generate fair amount of force Last longer than 2x 3 Fast twitch x Type 2X Fast glycolytic Contract fast Generate a lot of force Glycolytic depends on glycogen storage in muscles Can deplete that source in about a minute Greater force generation Don t have a sustainable energy source since glycolytic Will fatigue fast Will only be able to sustain T tELlE 111 Elassi caticm ef Muscle Filter Types Fiber classii icati39en System 1 Type Type Ila Type IIIz System 2 Slew twitch tSTJ Fast twitch a tFTali Fast twitch 1c tFTztii System 3 Slew esiclatiye SCI Fastjesticlatiyefglycelytjic tFCEEI Fast glycelytjic tFGJ Cli f l t fl lll ef titer types at clatiye capacity High Meclerately high Lew lycelytic capacity Lew High Highest ECthtractile speecl Slew Fast Fast Fatigue resistance High Meclerate Lew Meter unit strength Lew High High Note In thistth we use system 1 m classify muscle fibertypes lClther ten ninelegies systems ancl Bil l39iase also been usecl te iclel rtily the three primary ber types Singe Muscle ber physiology Peak power is different between muscle ber types All ber types tend to reach their peak power at about 20 peak force Huge difference in force Increasing order of force Type 1 lt Type 2a ltType 2x If you look at athlete athletes from the Successfu athletes in power sports 2a or 2x higher percentages Successfu athletes in endurance sports higher percent in type 1 These muscle bers are genetic There are exceptions and other factors TopHat Will be on the test The amount of blood pumped form the left ventricle each minute is called the A Ejection Fraction B Stroke Volume How much the heart pumps outwith each beat How much the Left ventricle pumps out each time it beats C Mean Arterial Pressure Amount of blood out of the heart per unit of time To calculate heart rate X stroke volume Jack plans to do 25 pushups 50 sit ups and 10 chinups every day to increase muscular strength and endurance What key training principle is jack violating A Reversibility B Speci city C Intensity D Progressive overload The Fick equation indicates that the rate of oxygen consumption is equal to A Stroke volume aV02 difference B Heart Rate Stroke volume C Cardiac Output a V02 difference D Heart Rate Systolic blood pressure Starting a Resistance Training program Begin with a weight that is onehalf of the person s 1RM This is the proper weight if the person can lift it about 10 times After reaching 15 reps progress to a heavier weight For weight control 23 sets of each lift per day 23 times per week Strength changes with training in older subjects average age 68 years Rapid improvements in the rst few weeks Think about when you start lifting weights do you get a 60 increase in muscles no So why do they They have neurological changes motor neurons better synchronization of the muscles to do the activity Once neurological changes have been incorporated gains are gradual Ex Bench press rst time you do it its kina awkward Gradual improvement as you gets further into training These are due to skeletal muscle changes Why are their muscles bigger Nightly Performances Dynamic tension isometric Free weights plus Muscles that get bigger Depends on the type of training program Peope now get bigger muscles due to better training and better nutrition Changes in muscle size 1 Hypertrophy Individual muscle bers getting bigger Looks like humans only go through hypertrophy not hyperplasia 2 Hyperplasia Increase in number of muscle bers 12 splitting become different muscle bers Examples of this in other species like cats Microscopic view of Muscle cross section before and after training Begging they are bundled and small After the bers are much bigger Key Training Principles Progressive overload Training must involve working the body harder than normal in order to make gains lf aren t pushing the body harder than you have before then you are just going to maintain what you have Speci city Training must match the type of activity the person engages in and stress the physiological system critical to optimal performance in the given sport Reversibility lf training is decreased or stopped improvements will be reversed May decrease to level that meets daily demands Cardiovascular System Important points Cardiac output heart rate X stroke volume Acute single bout as your exercises what happens changes with exercise Chronic Adaptations to training Factors effecting oxidative metabolism VOZmax Things that can in uence the Fick equation Blood oxygen carrying capacity Local muscle blood ow Mitochondrial oxidative capacity Airlung oxygen exchange Cardiac output Oxygen transport into muscle vo2 Cardiac output x av02 diff av02 Difference in oxygen content from arterial blood vs venous blood how much oxygen you extract from the body Blood ow increases a 2 fold during exercise Cardiac Output Q During Exercise Q heart rate HR X Stroke Volume SV As your work level increases your cardiac output increases Once you get to the plateau likely to stop the exercise Heart Rate during Exercise Resting heart rate Nice calm relaxed when you rst get up in the morning seated Don t do it right before a big event Maximal heart rate Subtract age from 220 Steady state heart rate When you plateau As work level increases heart rate increases linear Who people one less t one t start running a mile at same speed and all other things being equal The one that s less t will have a higher heart rate Because they have a lower stroke volume is less Stoke volume during exercise Determine by Voume of returned venous blood How much volume of blood you have in your body As you exercise you increase blood volume rapidly Ventricuar size Ventricuar contractility Aortic Pressure Stroke volume goes up until 4060 of workload and then plateaus or goes down Stroke Volume During Exercise Reduced time to ll as heart rate increases There is limit to how much can be pushed out Stroke volume doesn t keep increasing because of time Changes in V02max with 12 months of endurance training Stoke volume is higher Cardiac output is higher Exercise Prescription for Aerobic Prescription for aerobic tness includes four basic factors FI39IT Erequency of participation lntensity of exercise bout Duration time of each exercise bout Mode or type of exercise Minimum threshold required for bene ts Varies widely across individuals General Guidelines 35 days per week or more gt Or equal 5060 V02max most important factor need to have this intensity level 2030 min is optimal at appropriate intensity Modes can varywhole body and dynamic Monitoring Exercise Intensity Intensity can be monitored using Karvonen Method heart rate reserve of maximal HRR added to resting HR Ratings of Perceived Exertion Subjective rating of workload using numerical scale Tak Testquot If you can talk but cant hold a conversation then you are probably at the appropriate level Karvonen Method Wont be tested on Maximal heart rate reserve HRmaxHRrest Target heart rate THR is calculated THR75 HRrest 075 HRmaxHRrest Training heart rate ranges can then be determined Borg Ratings of Perceived Exertion Scale Number re ects how hard you are working right now


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