chapter 12 notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melissa Kaufman on Sunday March 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1300-03 at Tulane University taught by John Hall in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Sociology at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 03/27/16
3/14/16 Chapter 12 FBI classifies 4 types of property crimes 1. Larceny theft: hundreds of different charges that can be filed; unlawful taking of property from another possession involves stealth, not force - focused in text on shop-lifting - 15—20% is shop-lifting (biggest category) - Demographics are equal amongst all categories (race, gender) - Ages range greatly - Petty theft crime 2. Motor Vehicle Theft: on land vehicle - Doesn’t apply to airplanes, boats, farm equipment - Just autos or trucks - Why are people stealing those? 3. Burglary: unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony 4. Arson: malicious burning of a structure (biggest overrepresentation of juveniles) Property crimes are more likely committed than violent crimes Property crimes are highest in the south and lowest in the northeast In part 1 offenses, the most common is larceny Amateur theft: commit crimes when the opportunity arises Professional theft: plan their offenses carefully; high profit Tipsters: let burglars know of safe attractive targets Fences: sell the stolen goods to customers Sneaky thrill crimes: excited by the idea of stealing Target hardening: efforts to make residences more difficult to burglarize 3/16/16 Reason for Auto Theft: 1. Joyriding (most common) 2. Transportation (to and from crime scene, convenience) 3. Financial Gain (selling parts Reasons for Arson: 1. Revenge (number 1 reason) 2. Vandalism 3. Crime Concealment (minimize evidence for violent crime scenes) 4. Profit 5. Excitement Crime in terms of absence of guardianship (Routine Activities Theory) - What keeps people really away from crime is an effective guardianship - If not, you increase the opportunity for people to undertake criminal tasks - Example: people whose homes are vacant for long periods of time are more susceptible to burglaries Katz: sneaky thrill crimes - Crimes for the thrill of it - Excitement Reducing Crime Situational Prevention Techniques: 1. Target hardening: surveillance equipment (trying to make places more difficult to burglarize) - Home security measures 2. Community Prevention: neighborhood watches, volunteers to control the streets, more common in working and middle class areas Identity Threat: - Need your name, credit card number, social security number, bank account information - More common than check forgery because less checks are used today Tax Fraud/evasion: - Conceal revenue - Intentional failure to pay all taxes owed - Common for online shopping and for businesses - If you get caught, then all you have to do is pay a fine Auto Fraud - Fake accidents Hacking: trying to get information online - Majority of people who are hackers are not doing it for criminal reasons - Interested in trying to defeat a system (get a kick out of being able to beat a defense mechanism; intellectual) Phishing Schemes: - Anything through your email to try to get private information - Asking you to provide “important information”, fake emails - Or it contains viruses - Can look very real Malware: - Undermining your systems to get information from you - Some are noncriminal - Affects the computer’s performance Illegal downloading: - Has become a norm - You don’t get tracked legally for this - Neutralization techniques used to defend this act Anti-Trust Laws - Restricting monopolies (a company that controls too many shares, takes over the whole marketplace) - The laws are supposed to ensure fair competition (est. in 1890) - Problem: government interventions that sponsor monopolistic controls
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