Week 6 Notes- History 1A
Week 6 Notes- History 1A History 1A
Popular in Introduction to Western Civilization: Ancient Civilizations, Prehistory to circa A.D. 843
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Doberneck on Wednesday November 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to History 1A at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Phillips in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Western Civilization: Ancient Civilizations, Prehistory to circa A.D. 843 in History at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 11/04/15
Thucydides Immediate successor to Herodotus Represents a crucial step in the development of historiography o In his histories, the gods don't play a direct role Human causation alone o Was referred to as First scientific historian o We now realize that both historians have strengths and weaknesses o Thucydides, never cites sources, writes more authoritative history but doesn't back it up, might be biased but we only have his account do we can’t check o Herodotus identifies his sources, but is still biased His causes of the Great War o Proximate causes o Corinthian causes o Truest allegation/ultimate cause of the war is identified as the growth of the Athenian empire and the reaction of fear that this provokes in Sparta Archidamian War (431421) Started with Sparta attacking Athens Was actually the Hellenic league of Sparta. Against the Delian league of Athens Fought based on their individual strengths o “the elephant and the whale” o Athens is very good at naval combat, does okay on land o Sparta has a bad navy but is very good on land plague at Athens 430429 o Athens strategy was to be in the defense and just sit tight, making sure they had access to the sea so they didn't starve o Was a disaster when a plague swept through and killed 1 in 3 Athenians o Pericls, the guy in charge died PylosSphacteria, 425 Amphipolis, 424/3 o Sparta Offered chance to have peace, Athens says no o So Amphipolis is a very important city to Athens, it had a lot of good lumber and gold mines o Sparta focus their efforts on taking this very important city and succeed o As a result, Thucydides is exiled because his job was to protect the city, allowing him to travel and collect information for his history Peace of Nicias (421413) Most of the people truly want an end to the war o Athens and Sparta are ready to end the war o Other Spartans allies, such as Corinth, don't want peace and act like the treaty was never signed Went from physical war to a sort of Cold War, with aggressive actions in between physical fighting Alcibiades and the Sicilian expedition (415413) o Largest military expedition since the invasion of Persia Hermocopid conspiracy o A hermocopid is a small monument for Hermes o One night, the hundreds of herms throughout the city were all destroyed, right before they were preparing to travel for the Sicilian expedition profanation of the Mysteries (415) Deceleian War (413404) occupation of Deceleia, an Athenian city, by Sparta o Used as the center of Spartan operations o Athenian economy dwindles to practically nothing Persian question o Both Athens and Sparta send ambassador s to Persia asking for help, Persia helps Sparta Revolution of 411: a “tale of two cities” (Athens, Samos) o Athenian government changes to oligarchy, Samos revolts o Samos creates their own New Democratic government claiming they are the legit Athenian government o After just a few months, Athens returns to a democracy Xenophon, Hellenica Continued where Thucydides left off His history is the most important continuation of the Peloponnesian war Arginusae (406) o Small island off of lesbos o Next Athenian opportunity to win the war o Athenians win this battle, but a storm comes in and destroys many of the ships and sailors stranded on these ships o Athens tries, convicts, and executes 6 of their generals because they failed to save the sailors Aegospotami (405) o Athenian navy slowly dwindles, keep losing battles, refuse peace treaty o Sparta successfully gains control of the sea and starves them out Surrender of Athens (404) o Sparta don't trust Athens o Create an oligarchy in Athens to control them 30 Tyrants Spartan oligarchy Reign for 8 months Truly a reign of terror, o 1500 executed, 5000 exiled o Exiled because they're wealthy or a democratic sympathizer The exiled people fight back o Athenian democracy is restored Amnesty Violation in the letter Violation in spirit o Trial of Socrates o Charged with impiety and corrupting the youth o Socrates had been the teacher of Critias, who ended up being part of the thirty tyrants o Socrates gives 3 speeches One when he is on trial, he is said to be guilty One during the part where they choose the punishment, more people vote to kill him than they did to convict him BC his speech alienated him Last speech afterward o Later historians admit that the reason Socrates was out to death was because he had a connection to the 30 tyrants King Philip II All mainland Greek and south of come together under leadership and form the league of Corinth in 337 o First act if the league is to form an alliance with Phillip o They then declare war on the Persians, which was Philips goal all along He is assassinated in 336 Alexander III (The Great) Lived from 356323, reigned from 336323 Stage 1: Alexander's war against Darius the third o 334 – Battle of Granicus River, Alexander wins nearly at the cost of his own life. This victory gave him control of Asian minor o 333 – Battle of Issus Defeats the Persian army that outnumbers him 3:1. Spreads through Asia Minor o 331 – He arrives in Egypt, there is no resistance because the Egyptians hate being ruled by the Persians, the Persian empire surrender without a fight, Alexander is named pharaoh of Egypt Alexander goes to the religious shrine in North Africa, AmonZeus in the Libyan desert He is told that he is the son of Amon/Zeus, starts pro calming this and alienating his people because they know he's not and he's acting like a Persian o 331 – Gaugamela: another battle against Darius, Darius flees and his army runs away with him Darius dies in 330, and alexander becomes king of Persia by right of conquest They complain that he begins acting like a traditional Persian King instead of a Macedonian King Alexander tries to implement a traditional Persian practice where upon seeing the king, they have to bow down and essentially worship him. The Macedonians refuse to do this because they know he just a human and it's ridiculous in their opinion because they hardly even do that with the gods. Stage 2: Alexander's campaign against the inland Persian empire, known as the Drive to Persis (331330) Stage 3: India campaign (327325) o Alexander wanted to go even farther than the Persians, and starts conquering India o His troops say they've had enough and start a mutiny in Hyphasis around 326 o Eventually had to give up and go home o Very dangerous journey back, but they make it Returns home 324. Makes changes o First, he decided to integrate the Macedonian and Persian troops on all levels The Macedonians revel because they think am expander is going to replace them all He just replaces the Macedonians who are too old or sick to continue with Persians o Tries to make the league of Corinth recognize him as a god, process known as deification in 324 They do this so that he doesn't send his army after them o Dies in 323 Died after having too much to drink, eventually lost his senses and was sick for 13 days The end of the Classical Period, and beginning of Hellenistic period Philosophy Comes from Greek word meaning love of wisdom Started in Ionia which is in Asian minor during the early 6 entury, with the first of the Greek philosopher Thales o Early philosophy started with questioning what we came from Believed everything was made from one element, but didn't know what that one Thales thought it was water, Anaximander thought it was “the infinite”, Anaximenes thought it was air th th o Pythagoras, another Pre Socratic philosopher (late 6 to early 5 century BC Obsessed with numbers Belief in the transmigration of souls th th o Heracleitus (late 6 early 5 century) Believed original element was fire Says that everything is in a constant state of flux, meaning everything is changing. You can't step into the same river twice because everything flows o Xenophanes (570503) Believes that the gods wouldn't act like humans do, and criticizes how homer portrayed the gods Challenges the portrayal of gods, saying that the only reason the gods look like them is because they do He believed in a single God who was not like mortals in body or thought Founded a school in southern Italy, which the philosopher Zeno was taught in o Zeno of Elea (Early 5 century) Put forth many paradoxes that challenged traditional thinking Second paradox Achilles and a tortoise decide to have a race. Achilles gives the tortoise a head start. Zeno says that because a line is supposed to be a bunch of infinite points in finite time, Achilles can never catch up to the tortoise and neither will ever finish the race o Empedocles (492432) Decided there's not one original element, but 4: earth eater air fire Says they are all 4 original elements, and matter comes in all different forms because they are given different ratios of each element This theory lasted through the Middle Ages th o Leucippus and Democritus (late 5 century) Atomic theories The Sophists o Concerned with the teaching of rhetoric because public speaking was very important o Protagoras (490420) Denial of absolute truth The big three o Socrates (470399) Fundamental problem with studying him because he didn't write anything down about his philosophy We rely on what his student Plato has written down Someone went to an oracle and was told that Socrates was the wisest man on earth Decided that this was because he is the only one hero recognizes his own ignorance Interest in ethics and human behavior Virtue and knowledge are identical because the person who knows what's right and has that knowledge will do that which is right Public figure, not always liked Put on trial for impiety and corrupting the youth Ultimately is killed because Critus was his student and also one of the 30 tyrants Within two generations of the execution was revealed that although at the time they said it was because of his political views, it was actually this connection o Plato (428347) Skips town for a little bit, comes back and starts his own school Allegory of the cave: you have a group of prisoners who have spent their entire lives in the cave facing the wall. There are images reflected from the fire through a screen into the wall. One prisoner escapes, and realizes their whole lives had been a lie. He returns to the cave to tell his fellow prisoners who then kill him. Can be seen as a parallel to Socrates being killed o Aristotle (384322) Theological doctrine of formal causation "Man is a political animal" man is an animal that lives in a polis
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