BSC 101 Helms Week 11 Lecture Notes 10/26-10/30
BSC 101 Helms Week 11 Lecture Notes 10/26-10/30 BSC 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Daniel Hemenway on Wednesday November 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 101 at Illinois State University taught by Dr. Helms in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Concepts in Biology in Biological Sciences at Illinois State University.
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BSC 101 Helms 10261030 Chapter 8 Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 178 Cattle are herbivores Herbivores eat plants or parts of plants 0 Gain energy from cellulose For us cellulose is Fiber 0 Cows have a complex four stomach system that helps break cellulose down through microorganisms that house enzymes that break the bonds of the cellulose molecules 0 Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 179 Animals can be described as generalist or specialist feeders Generalist Opportunistic feeders eat a wide variety of foods Example Black bears 0 Specialist Highly selective diet have adaptations for acquiring necessary nutrients from that particular food 0 Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 180 There are three main mechanisms for food acquisition in animals 0 1 Fluid Feeders organisms that ingest nutrient rich fluids Examples mosquito leech hummingbird Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 181 2 Bulk Feeders Use teeth and jaws to attack and feed on other organisms 0 Many adaptations in teeth Carnivores Eat meat sharp teeth Herbivores Eat plant material clipping incisors big grinding molars Omnivores Generalist feeders sharp canines incisors molars Teeth types 0 Incisors Front for cutting clipping gnawing Canine Sharp found on either side of incisors piercing and tearing Molars Back large flat for chopping and grinding Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 182 3 Filterfeeders 0 Marine Freshwater Example 0 Sponges Whales BSC 101 Helms 10261030 Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 183 Nutrition Specialization of biology that examines how nutrients are digested broken down or used in the body Nutrients Chemical substances essential for survival 0 Provide energy raw materials or supports body processes Macronutrients Organic molecule needed in large amounts Large complex molecules 0 Carbohydrates 0 Proteins Lipids VVater Micronutrients Organic molecule needed in small amounts support metabolic processes Vitamins Minerals Essential nutrients Body can t make it have to obtain it through diet Examples Vitamin C amino acids fatty acids 0 Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 184 Simple carbohydrates Simple sugars primary fuel source 0 Fruits Processed foods Examples 0 Glucose Most abundant sugar molecule in the human diet 0 Sucrose Table sugar 0 Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 185 Complex carbohydrates energy storage molecules Starch Complex carbohydrates from plants OH groups all on the same side Cellulose structural carbohydrate used by plants to build their cell walls every other bond has OH groups sticking up Glycogen energy storage carbohydrates made by animals 0 Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 186 Lipids organic macronutrients greasy oily Triglycerides three fatty acids attached to glycerol 0 Can be energy 0 Protection 0 Nervous System 0 Insulation BSC 101 Helms 10261030 Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 187 Proteins 0 We eat these in Meat fish beans nuts seeds eggs 0 Sequence chain of amino acids 0 Have diverse functions Hormones Enzymes any protein that speeds up a chemical reaction 0 Signaling molecules 0 Structural compounds hair skin nails Amino acid what proteins are made of o Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 188 Vitamins Diverse group of organic chemicals that are generally required in small amounts by the body 0 Fatsoluble Watersoluble Minerals 0 Diverse functions Build bones and shells Transport oxygen and hemoglobin Assist enzymes 0 Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 189 Water is an essential nutrient for body functioning Obtain water by Drinking it Foods Metabolism We lose water by Urine Skin and lung evaporation Feces