Community Mental Health
Community Mental Health HED 371 001
Popular in Introduction to Public and Community Health
Popular in Nursing and Health Sciences
NURS 239 001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by ayla on Wednesday November 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HED 371 001 at University of New Mexico taught by Angelica Boyle in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Public and Community Health in Nursing and Health Sciences at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 11/04/15
1 Community Mental Health Chapter 2 Mental illness is the leading cause of disability in North America and Europe 26 of American adults have diagnosable mental or addictive disorders during a given year 6 of adults in US have serious mental illness Needs of people with mental illnesses diverse 12 of people with mental illness have more than one disorder 3 Causes of Disability for All Ages US 4 Definitions Mental health Emotional and social wellbeing psychological resources for dealing with daytoday problems of life Mental illness all diagnosable mental disorders Mental disorders Health conditions characterized by alterations in thinking mood or behavior associated with distress andor impaired functioning 5 Good Mental Health Adults with good mental health are able to Function under adversity Change or adapt to changes around them Maintain control over their tension and anxiety Find more satisfaction in giving than receiving Show consideration for others Curb hate and guilt Love others 6 Classification of Mental Disorders Classification of mental disorders arbitrary because based on descriptions of behavioral signs and symptoms rather than clinical measurements Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition by the American Psychiatric Association Most influential book in mental health 7 Causes of Mental Disorders Symptoms can arise from various causes Poor prenatal care postnatal environment genetics environmental factors brain function impairment substance abuse maladaptive family functioning PTSD Major Depression 8 Mental Illness in America Mental illness one of most pervasive health problems in US Homicide and suicide 2 and 3 causes of death in 1524 age group associated with mood disorders High rates of alcohol tobacco and other drugs use for coping with life s problems another social indicator of mental illness 9 Stress General Adaptation Syndrome GAS 10 Stress Fight or flight reaction Diseases of adaptation Psychophysiologic disorders Avoiding stressful situations preferable to managing stress Stress management Community support 11 History of Mental Health Care in America Collective response to mental illness has been cyclic in the US Periods of enthusiastic reform and periods of national ambivalence 12 Mental Health Care before World War II Colonial America mentally ill were cared for by families or private caretakers lnstitutionalization first appeared in 18 th century Population growth led to institution growth Harsh treatments and unpleasant conditions 13 The Moral Treatment Era Began in 1792 Belief that environmental changes can affect the mind and alter behavior Move people from settings causing life stressors into rural peaceful setting Appeared to have success and became widely acceptable 14 The State Hospitals Dorothea Dix advocated for public hospitals providing decent care for indigents with mental illness State hospitals built but deterioration of services occurred as chronic nature of mental illness was discovered long term or lifetime stays were the norm Capacities quickly reached personalized care lost restraints became more practical staff turnover high 15 The State Hospitals 1940 population in state mental institutions was nearly a half million many elderly Electroconvulsive Therapy ECT introduced in 1939 still used today Lobotomies practiced 16 Mental Health Care after World War II NlMH established Deinstitutionalization from state hospitals propelled by economics idealism legal considerations and antipsychotic drugs Community mental health centers fully staffed centers originally funded by the federal government providing comprehensive mental health services to local populations 17 Mental Health Care Concerns Today Experiences of people with serious mental illness has improved significantly in past 50 years Challenges remain How to provide services to the homeless Resolving problems of those with mental illness who are incarcerated 18 Homelessness 21 million adults experience homelessness over the course of a year 80 temporarily homeless 10 episodically homeless 10 chronically homeless About half of all homeless adults have substance use disorders Many have major depression and other co occurring mental illness 19 Jails and Prisons People with serious mental illness perpetrate more violence than others 35 of people with mental illness are victimized by violence More than half of all prison and jail inmates have mental health problems Once released back into community more likely to commit crime if untreated 20 Prevention Prevention in community mental health considered more cost effective than treatment Primary Secondary Tertiary Preventive community mental health care services Primary Secondary Tertiary 21Treatment Treatment approaches Goals to reduce symptoms improve personal and social functioning develop and strengthen coping skills promote behaviors that make a person s life better Psychotherapy Psychopharmacology Psychiatric rehabilitation Selfhelp groups 22 Federal Initiatives for Mental Health Care Most federal support has been for research surveillance and goal setting less support for prevention early intervention and treatment Achieving the Promise Transforming Mental Health Care in America Medicaid spending and mental health concerns 23 Community Mental Health and Managed Care Focused on reducing costs of care and making sure outcomes are effective Behavioral health care services Parity
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