Week of March 21 Notes
Week of March 21 Notes HIST289V
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by HIST289V on Sunday March 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST289V at University of Maryland - College Park taught by Dr. Howard Smead in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see What Does it Mean to be an American? in History at University of Maryland - College Park.
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Date Created: 03/27/16
Unit 2 3/21/16 Presidential Reconstruction 1865-1867 Congressional Reconstruction 1867-1877 Three Elements of Reconstruction Economic Political Racial Freedmen Aren’t slaves anymore, but aren’t necessarily citizens Legally they are, however they generally aren’t accepted as such Rooted in the purpose of the Civil War South had just finished fighting for 4 years to protect the idea of white supremacy White Supremacy: “The Organic Law of the Land” White Supremacy Factors Scientific racism Phrenology Crainometry Intelligence = IQ tests These tests were often extremely biased Eugenics Social Darwinism: “Survival of the fittest” Laissez-faire: economics and government: allows natural order of things Self-reliance “rugged individualism” Honor Localism Tradition and violence flourish New South Creed Progress thru uniformity Savage Ideal Conformity thru violence The mindset to maintain white supremacy by any means necessary Southern Rape Complex Sexual threat to white women Any threat of change that a black made against the social structure was a threat to white women There was a common stereotype that black men raped white women (untrue) Edgefield Policy Savage ideal in action Gave white men the responsibility to do whatever is necessary to maintain control in the black population Racial Violence Lynching 1880’s-1910’s Killing off black elected officials Occurred once every two and a half days Nadir: 1880-1920 Legalized discrimination every southern state by 1910 2,000 African American elected and appointed to office in South from 1867 to 1900 Whites dominated Reconstruction in almost every way But, biracial government functioned in South for a time Blacks and black legislators had helped significantly in setting the country back on the right track, but were rewarded with discrimination South Carolina had 39 black legislators in 1877, zero in 1900 Result of Jim Crow Laws Mississippi Plan Adopted by a state constitutional convention in 1890 th th Attempt to circumvent 14 and 15 amendments Residency requirement 6 years Then entitled to register Poll tax: $2 Literacy test Understanding test Grandfather clause White Democratic Primary Segregation Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 Validated “Equal and separate”/separate but equal Mississippi v. Williams Validated Mississippi Plan 3 Great Forces Industrialization America becomes an industrial giant Agrarian turned into industrial Urbanization Highest standard of living in human history Political, economic and social power shifted from countryside to the city Immigration Became truly a multi-cultural, pluralistic, diverse society Iron Age of American history Spurred by the Civil War Post-Civil War Exports 3x Population 2x Standard of living 2x Railroads key factor Industries based in or near cities, or industrial towns Led to large corporations and monopolies Revolution – industrial capitalism rises to absolute power Industry is developed in Urban Centers Centrifugal force of industrialization expanded industrialism and the power of businessmen everywhere The businessman vied with the cowboy as the quintessential American The businessman overwhelmed the farmer in wealth, political power and social status Centripetal force brought more people into centers from which power radiated – cities Created metropolitan areas Urban America Industrialization created cities and gave them a new and alien character, fueled by immigration A small percentage of the population became extremely wealthy Population went from 6 million to 44 million Robber Barons Political machines and corrupt political bosses Chaos, crime, consumption Huge foreign-born population Immigration Greatest voluntary migration in human history Pre-Civil War Immigration British, western European, Northern European, African, Hispanic, Asia New Immigrant stock Central Europe, Southern Europe, Eastern Europe/Russia, Asia Religion among immigrant shifted from protestant to Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Jewish, Buddhist, Confuscian Motives for migration Push factors Land consolidation Commercial farming Industrialization Religious and political persecution Often applied to Russian Jews Pull Factors Higher wages Higher standard of living Better Opportunity More freedom Often considered to be temporary migration The Melting Pot Cities largely foreign-born Ethnic enclaves developed like Little Italy, Five Points, Chinatown Meanwhile, the countryside was populated more by native- born Xenophobia Fear, dislike of foreigners; often irrational Nativism Policy or ideology of protecting native inhabitants, indigenous culture, etc., against immigrants and foreign influence A natural born citizen A citizen from birth by place of birth (or by descent); doesn’t need naturalization Native born A person born of a citizen of the U.S.; doesn’t need naturalization Naturalized citizen A person who has become a US citizen as opposed to being born as a US citizen