Alcohol and Drugs
Alcohol and Drugs HED 371 001
Popular in Introduction to Public and Community Health
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NURS 239 001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by ayla on Wednesday November 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HED 371 001 at University of New Mexico taught by Angelica Boyle in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Public and Community Health in Nursing and Health Sciences at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 11/04/15
10 11 1 Alcohol Tobacco and Other Drugs Use misuse and abuse of mindaltering substances predates recorded history Chronic alcohol and other drug abuse or dependence is regarded as destructive behavior in most cultures Affects individuals and the surrounding community Violence Associated with Drug and Alcohol Use Scope of the Current Drug Problem More deaths illnesses and disabilities can be attributed to substance abuse than any other preventable health condition Economic costs include direct costs health care premature death impaired productivity and indirect costs crime and law enforcement courts jails social work Those abusing are threats to themselves their families and their communities Definitions Drug Psychoactive drugs Drug use Drug misuse Drug abuse Drug dependence Factors that Contribute to Alcohol Tobacco and Other Drug Abuse Risk factors factors that increase the probability of drug use Protective factors factors that lower the probability of drug use Both can be genetic or environmental Inherited Risk Factors Most research related to drug dependence and inherited risk is on alcoholism Research has shown genetic and biological markers may predispose someone to increased susceptibility to develop alcoholrelated problems Environmental Risk Factors Personal factors Home and family life School and peer groups Sociocultural environment Types of Drugs Abused and Resulting Problems Legal drugs Alcohol nicotine nonprescription overthe counter drugs prescription drugs Illegal illicit drugs and controlled substances Marijuana narcotics cocaine and crack cocaine hallucinogens stimulants depressants club drugs and designer drugs anabolic drugs inhalants Legal Drugs Can be legally bought and sold in the marketplace Includes drugs that can be closely regulated likely regulated and not regulated at all Alcohol Number one drug problem in the United States Binge drinking Underage drinking Problem drinkers Alcoholism Blood alcohol concentration BAC FAS 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Nicotine Psychoactive and addictive drug present in tobacco products Synar Amendment Environmental tobacco smoke ETS or secondhand smoke Over the Counter Drugs OTCs Legal drugs other than alcohol and tobacco that can be purchased without a physician s prescription Carefully regulated by the Food and Drug Administration FDA Most only provide symptomatic relief not a cure Subject to misuse and abuse Prescription Drugs Can be purchased only with a physician s prescription because they have serious side effects for some people Regulated by the FDA Over 4000 prescription drugs available Subject to misuse and abuse Risk of dependence Risk of unintentional overdose Controlled Substances and lllicit Drugs Those regulated by the Controlled Substances Act of 1970 Cannot be cultivated manufactured bought sold or used within the confines of the law Schedule high potential for abuse no accepted medical uses Schedules llV have medical uses scheduled based on potential for risk of dependence or abuse Drug Enforcement Agency DEA responsible for enforcing Controlled Substances Act Marijuana Products derived from hemp plant Most abused illicit drug in the US Acute effects reduced concentration slowed reaction time impaired short term memory impaired judgment Chronic effects damage to the respiratory system if smoked amotivational syndrome Narcotics Opium and its derivatives morphine and heroin come from an oriental poppy plant Narcotics numb the senses and reduce pain High potential for abuse Opium poppies do not grow in US drug trafficking problems Heroin addiction leads to significant community health problems Cocaine and Crack Cocaine Cocaine is the psychoactive ingredient in the leaves of the coca plant Powerful and addictive euphoriantstimulant Purified forms salt white powder dried paste crack Hallucinogens Produce illusions hallucinations changes in perceptions Synesthesia mixing of the senses Both naturally derived and synthetic LSD mescaline peyote mushrooms Stimulants Drugs that increase the activity of the central nervous system Schedule II Methamphetamines often made in clandestine labs Amphetamines prescription drugs widely abused 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Depressants Slow down the central nervous system May lower anxiety and inhibitions Tolerance develops Strong physical dependence Alcohol barbiturates benzodiazapines Club Drugs and Designer Drugs lllicit drugs primarily synthetic most commonly encountered at nightclubs and raves MDMA ecstasy most popular club drug Rohypnol date rape drug Designer drugs synthesized by amateur chemists in secret labs Constantly change design to stay ahead of law enforcement Anabolic Drugs Proteinbuilding drugs Anabolicandrogenic steroids testosterone human growth hormone Have some legitimate medical uses Sometimes abused by athletes and body builders Acute and chronic side effects lnhalants Collection of psychoactive breathable chemicals Paint solvents motor fuels cleaners glues aerosol sprays Easy availability Low cost Often drug choice of young Acute and chronic effects Levels of Prevention Primary prevention aimed at those who have never used drugs Secondary prevention aimed at those who have used but are not chronic abusers Tertiary prevention aimed at drug abuse treatment and aftercare including relapse prevention Elements of Prevention Education Treatment Public policy Law enforcement Education and treatment goals same Reduce demand for drugs Public policy and law enforcement goals same Reduce supply and availability of drugs Governmental Drug Prevention and Control Agencies and Programs Include a multitude of federal state and local agencies Aim to reduce either the supply or demand for drugs Federal Agencies and Programs Office of National Drug Control Policy Department of Health and Human Services Substance Abuse and Mental Health SAMSHA Department of Homeland Security Department of Justice Bureau of Alcohol Services Administration National Institute on Drug Abuse Tobacco Firearms and Explosives ATF State and Local Agencies and Programs State departments of health education mental health justice and law enforcement all address drug abuse prevention and control issues Some states have passed laws that conflict with federal laws Local communities have individuals task forces or agencies to prioritize problems and decide approaches for solving them 30 Nongovernmental Drug Prevention and Control Agencies and Programs Communitybased drug education programs Schoolbased drug education programs DARE student assistance programs peer counseling programs Workplacebased drug education programs Employee assistance programs Voluntary health agencies