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Notes 11-3-15

by: Alexis Harman

Notes 11-3-15 SRST 200

Alexis Harman
GPA 3.67
History of Sports and Leisure in America
Mark Shriver

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About this Document

Modernization of Sports with the rise of Clubs and Regulations
History of Sports and Leisure in America
Mark Shriver
Class Notes
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Harman on Wednesday November 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SRST 200 at George Mason University taught by Mark Shriver in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see History of Sports and Leisure in America in Physical Education at George Mason University.

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Date Created: 11/04/15
Rise of Modern Sports with the Establishment of Rules amp Regulations 185039s early 190039s Boxing 0 John L Sullivan 0 Irish American lived in Boston deemed quotBoston Strongboyquot had exhibition tours city to city paying people to ght him won over 450 ghts 4450 rounds each Key for boxing for two reasons 1 Last bareknuckles champion 18821889 2 First gloved boxing champion 18891892 0 1892 Sullivan lost to Gentleman named Jim Corbett Corbett becomes champion 18921897 0000 0 Tennis Sphairstike Greek word meaning quotthe art of playing the ballquot 0 Tennis was indoors quotreal tennisquot 0 Had walls 0 Walter C Wing eld o 1873 got patent rights for equipment amp rules 0 1874 creates 8page handbook 0 From Wales 0 Mary Outerbridge young NY socialite 0 So impressed by Wing eld amp tennis 0 Commission a court at a Cricket Club Wing eld sold kits to set up courts for personal use BasebaH By 1796 English rules were well established mentioned in Yohann Gutman39s book 0 Early 180039s Americans are playing baseball 0 By 186039s considered America s National Pasttimes Alexander Cartwright Created New York Knickerbacher Baseball Club 0 Devised 1St set of rules 0 Rule 13 player need not be physically hit by the ball to be out player can t be hit by the ball 0 19th ofJune 1846 rst recorded baseball game 0 Knickerbacher Club vs NY Baseballl Club 0 Took place in Hoboken o Knicker won 2 o 1857 16 clubs meet to standardize rules of baseball in NYC 0 Form NABBP National Association of Baseball Players 0 1867 over 400 clubs members of NABBP c 18611865 Civil War 0 directly responsible for spread of baseball 0 Needed something to relieve stress and be safe keep in shape 0 No standardized elds 0 1869 First Professional Baseball Team 0 Cincinatti Red Stockings 1870 Rift between professional paid and amateur unpaid 1875 amateur diminishes only professional left 0 Rumors club won39t accept players because they were not white 0 1876 another meeting to organize a more stable league NLB 0 First African American to play 0 18841891 Major League Baseball 0 In 1887 vote to have no more contact with African American players 0 1882 creation of American Association 0 Puts teams in major cities unoccupied by NLB NLB appealed to middle class 0 Charged 50 cents admission 0 Banned sale of alcohol 0 Refused to play on Sunday 0 American Association appealed to lower class 0 Charged 25 cents admission 0 Had alcohol for sale 0 Played on Sunday 0 1892 12 league team National League and American Association of Base Ball Clubs 0 1900 just National League 0 1901 formation of American League Abdner Doubleday quotinventedquot baseball 0 1839 credited with creating baseball 0 1905 created Mills Commission 4th president of National League search for who created BasebaH 0 Information given by Abdner Graves saying Doubleday created baseball in Cooperstown NY Graves killed his wife and went to a mental institute obviously information was not reliable Cartwright was the true creator Olympic Games 0 Established by Baron Pierre de Coubertain 1863 1937 0 As a child saw FrancoPrussian War Thought France lost because of their lack of vigor o Studied history and education mostly physical education 0 Formed own philosophy on Phys Ed 0 French quotpoopooedquot phys Ed Coubertain wanted to push phys Ed ln schools 0 huge artifacts in Greece of the Olympic Games during this time Coubertain becomes obsessed with the Games 0 Looks to the Athenian Model People met and did physical education in gymnasiums 0 Wanted to recreate the Olympic Games Coubertain39s Beliefs 0 Should athletes be amateur or professional 0 Shouldn t be paid Olympic Games good for Athletes because of four reasons 0 1 Compensation for amateurs lodging meals etc o 2 Promote World Peace 0 3 Promote Understanding Across Different Cultures Lessens the threat of war 0 4 Advocates philosophical ideal for athletic competition The competition itself was most important over winning quotthe struggle to overcome the opponentquot First Modern Olympic Games 1896 Athens Greece Second Modern Olympic Games Paris France 1900 Third Modern Olympic Games St Louis Missouri 1904 0 Almost all were failures 0 Not many participantsvisitors 1908 London England 0 for the rst time athletic governing organizations were putting on the events better more wellrounded 1912 Stockholm Sweden 0 quotWatershed gamesquot all ve continents represented 0 First time to use photo nish 0 First time to use automatic timing 0 First women39s swimming and diving Jim Thorpe won the decathaon George Patton 1924 First Winter Games Coubertain international Olympic director until 1925 1885 1900 Battle of Gymnastics Peope had different philosophies Formal approaches to physical education Evaluation of various physical education conference 0 Coubertain o Hitchcock o Sargeant 0 were all speakers Opens door to two questions 0 To what purpose shoud physical education be devoted o By what means do you achieve this purpose Shift in movement away from gymnastics to sports instruction 0 3 reasons for shift 1 Growing popularity of sports 1891 2 Students very board 3 Various theories of play 0 during this time more interest and growth in development of children 0 More importance on the value of play 0 New emphasis on team games D promote socialization teamwork develop character sacri ce individual First four year degree established in physical education Harvard Lawrence Scienti c School 0 Dudley Alan Sargeant 0 Medical doctor 0 Strength and measurements 0 Strength training 0 First strengths test George Wes Fitz o Researcher o Creates rst research lab motor development reaction studies Program only lasts seven years 0 Evolves into medical system Stanford University 0 Thomas Wood 0 Created physical education 1892 about 56 years 0 Ends because Wood eaves Stanford 0 programs taken over by state funded institutions 1910 rst graduate program 0 Cmombm 0 Under Thomas Wood 0 How to teach physical education Women and Sports Tennis Horseback riding Golf Swimming Archery Croquet quotrisqu quot o Castrating men all individual sports Not too physically demanding Socia component Early 189039s 0 Bicycles Competitive and recreational o o 1 Allows women degree of freedom not had before 0 2 Requires physical exertion o 3 Partially responsible for dress reform Susan B Anthony 0 quotBicycle has done more for the emancipation of women than anything else in the worldquot Had some access to formal education programs Delphine Hanna 0 Became a full professor in 1903 o Taught at Oberlin College 0 1885 develops rst teacher program preparation program for physical education Gulick Wood both her students Sendra Berenson 0 Smith College Near YMCA in Massachusetts 0 Reads article Nasmith 0 Thought basketball would be good for women for physical exertion 0 Thought too strenuous Divides court into three sections Can39t hold for more than three seconds Dribble only three times 0 1893 freshman vs sophomore games Doors locked No men allowed Reshi and turkey tail mushrooms for cancel 0 1896 rst collegiate game between Berkeley vs Stanford Basketball becomes most important sport for women 0 1 Basketball acceptable for women 0 2 Could maintain degree of femininity 3 Physically taxing but not too much


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