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Week 2 Notes

by: Fatima Ahmed

Week 2 Notes DEP 3115

Fatima Ahmed
GPA 3.75
Development in Infancy
Bethany Reed Sutherland

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About this Document

Notes on Biological Perspectives, The Ecologies of infancy, Parenting styles, and Sibling Relationships.
Development in Infancy
Bethany Reed Sutherland
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Fatima Ahmed on Friday January 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to DEP 3115 at Florida International University taught by Bethany Reed Sutherland in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 277 views. For similar materials see Development in Infancy in Psychlogy at Florida International University.


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Date Created: 01/23/15
Biological Perspectives proposed by Lorenz and Tinbergen worked with birds Theory that behavior must be viewed in a particular context and as having adaptive or survival value Critical Period a speci c time in an organism s development during which external factors have a unique and irreversible impact Sensitive period period of time that is optimal for the development of particular capacities and behavior Like the critical period but the time is not that speci c Criticisms doesn t not take into consideration changes due to unlikely environment Studies of looking at hereditary and individual and environment Focuses on the relative contributions of heredity and environment shared and non shared to individual differences in human behavior using statistical estimation Studies in differences between monozygotic and dizygotic twins Adoption studies researchers nd siblings who have been raised in separate environments Genes and interaction both have an affect Certain gene makeup in individuals makes them more vulnerable than certains others for diseases Nature and Nurture Transactional Model Proposed by Sameroff Child one and environment one affect child two and environment two They are intertwined Nature and Nurture dynamic systems perspective proposed by Gilbert gottlieb As individuals develop many systems are at play Genetic activity Neural activity Behavior Environment They all have a bidirectional relationship interact with each other in order to develop the individual Epigenesis ldea that the new phenomenon not present in the original fertilized egg can emerge over the course of development through the interaction of preexisting elements with environmental in uences Genetic makeup can be changed at any point in life Chapter 2 The Ecologies of infancy Systems theory perspective infant in the center various systems that surround the infant Closest to the infant context in which the child lives and interacts with people and instutions closest to them family friends interrelation among the components of the microsystem ex Relationship among family members the collection of settings that impinge on a childs development but in which the child does not play a direct role impinges but no direct role ex Mother is stressed out because ofjob child is in uenced by this the system that surrounds the microsystem mesosystem and exosystem representing the values ideologies and laws of the society or culture time based dimension that can alter the operation of all other systems from microsystem through macrosystem technology during era growing up for instance now television ipads iphones Family system instances in which any pair of family members affects and is affected by each other s behavior Con ict between parents affects how the child views relationships Heritabiity you inherit your genes from your parents instances in which the relationship between two individuals in a family is modi ed by the behavior or attitudes of a third family member stress social support Authoritative Warm Responsive Restrictive Demanding Authoritarian Rejecting Unresponsive Restricting Demanding Permissive Warm Responsive Permissive And Understanding Uninvolved Rejecting Unresponsive Permissive And Undemanding Best Type Of Parenting Warm Involved Responsive Shows Pleasure And Support Of Childs Constructive Behavior Considers Childs Wishes And Solicits Opinions Offers Alternatives Sets Standards Communicate Them Clearly And Enforces Them Firmly Does Not Yield To Childs Coercion Shows Displeasure At Bad Behaviors Confronts Disobedient Child Expects Mature Independent Age Appropriate Behavior Energetic Friendly Child Cheerful Self Controlled High On Demand Low On Warmth Show Little Warmth Or Positive Involvement Does Not Solicit Or Consider Child s Desires Or Opinion Enforces Rules Rigidly But Does Not Explain Them Clearly Moody Unhappy Aimless Fearful Moderately Warm Glori es Free Expression And Impulses And Desires Does Not Communicate Rules Or Enforce Them IgnoresAccepts Bad Behavior Yields To Coercion Whining Hiding Makes Few Demands For Mature Independent Behavior ImpulseAggressive Child Aggressive Domineering Resistant Noncompliant Quick To Anger But Fast To Recover Cheerful Mood Lacks Self Control And Little Self Reliance Impulsive Few Goal Directed Activities worst type of parenting SefCentered Negectfu Unresponsive Pursues Self Grati cation At The Expense Of Child s Welfare Tries To Minimize Costs Time Effort Of Interaction With Child Faied To Monitor Child s Activity May Be Depressive Anxious Emotional Needy ImpulsiveAggressive NoncompliantMoody Child Moody Insecurely Attached Impulsive Aggressive Noncompliant Irresponsible Low Self Esteem Immature Alienated From Family Lacks Social Skills Truant Associates With Troubled Peers Maybe Delinquent Is Sexually Precocious Mothers typically spend more time with their children than fathers Fathers still make signi cant contribution to infant s development Mothers and fathers have different plav stvles Father s play is more physically arousing Mothers play conventional games interact with toys and talk more Simiarities and differences to infantpeer and infant adult dyads More reatabe due to closeness in age Oder sibling acts as teacher in interactions Effects of birth order gtFirstborn adult oriented helpful self controlled gtLater born Iess fearful and anxious and have more self con dence and social poise than their rstborn siblings gtOnly Children high achievers personal control maturity and leadership Infants own sociability determines how much attention heshe receives from older sibling Siblings of same sex typically get along better than opposite sex siblings Parents have substantial in uence over how older children react to a new sibling Fathers may become more involved with older child Childs friends can serve as buffer when a new sibling arrives Potential bene t to infant of older siblings Additional caregiving Serve as resource in times of stress Serve as teachers Can compensate for poor peer relationships gtO6 months babies touch and look at each other and are responsive to each other s behaviors gt712 months infants begin to recognize a peer as a social partner gtAge 12 gains in locomotion and language increase the complexity of social exchanges Turn taking imitation positive affect start engaging in imaginative play gtAge 2 play in groups and engage in complex social exchanges ncreasingy prefer peer vs adult interactions gt Age 23 Share meaning Onlooker behavior watching while others engage in play activities Parallel play sidebyside play of similar activiites while not engaging with one another Associate play playing with one another but not necessarily sharing same goals Cooperative play engaging in play that incorporates cooperation reciprocation and sharing of a common goal Recent shifts in women working outside of the home have increased infant exposure to Nonparental care Majority of infants and children are exposed to Nonparental care at some point during the rst years of life NCHD Early Child Care Research network Established in 1990 to investigate whether and how much early child cares affects infants and young children s social emotional physical and cognitive development


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