Week 1 Notes
Week 1 Notes ARH 254
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melanie Viering on Friday January 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARH 254 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Cathy Pagani in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 136 views. For similar materials see ARH 254- Survey of Art III in Art History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 01/23/15
India I Indus River Valley Civilization 0 Religions 1 Jainism 2 Brahmanism 3 Hinduism 4 Buddhism more important religions 0 Karma means act or deed also refers to causality where intent and action influence future 0 central to Jainism Hinduism and Buddhism 0 m is traditional Indian female garb o 59 yards most commonly tied around waist and draped over shoulder Jainism o smallest of major world religions o stresses spiritual independence and equality of all life with particular emphasis on nonviolence ex Ghandi o compassion for all life human and nonhuman plants animals etc included is central only major world religion to require vegetarianism for every member refuse food obtained with unnecessary cruelty o excludes most root vegetables onions etc for this reason because you are killing the plant in the process of harvesting it 0 places great emphasis on karma Brahmanism 0 early form of Hinduism whose primary texts are the Vedas 0 social and religious system of orthodox Hinduism based on caste system and various forms of pantheism Brahmins are dominant caste of Hindu society is considered by some to be an orthodox sect of Hinduism instead of its own thing Hinduism o no known founder a conglomerate of diverse beliefs and ideals 0 3rd largest religion in world behind Christianity and Islam 0 important texts Vedas Upanishads Mahabharata o hindu is a Persian term for inhabitants of the Indus River 0 Pantheology multiple gods trinity o Brahma I Creator 0 Vishnu I Preserver I has avatars o Shiva I Destroyer o Ganesha I son of Shiva I remover of obstacles I head burned off by a god s gaze and it was agreed the next thing Shiva saw would replace his head hence his human body and elephant head Buddhism 0 nontheistic religion sometimes called a philosophy 0 historically founded by Siddhatha Guatama 563483 BCE 0 aka Guatama Buddha Shakyamuni sage of Shakyas o a spiritual teacher 0 painless birth 0 wealthy parents any person who is awakened from sleep of ignorance is a Buddha 4 Noble Truths of Buddhism 0 Suffering there is suffering in the world 0 Cause of Suffering desire is the cause of suffering o Cessation of Suffering way to stop suffering is the 8 Fold Path 0 8 Fold Path 3 main sections 0 physical actions I right speech doing the right thing etc o conscious mind I right efforts doing the right thing for the right reasons 0 unconscious mind I right thoughts never even considering a bad action 0 Schools of Buddhism 0 Theravada I called Hinayana meaning lesser vehicle by Mahayana as an insult o Mahayana I thinks bodhisattras are good I name means greater vehicle I version in China and Japan 0 Vajrayana Early Indus Valley Civilization Art 2500 1500 BCE 2 Main Sites Mohenjo Daro Harappa Mohenjo Daro o discovered 1922 city of the dead 0 m 0 made of steatite soap stone ish 0 used to press into clay o can not translate script on it o primarily found at MD 0 The High Priest 0 limestone 7 tall 0 formal style I abstract beard downcast eyes full lips 0 Dancing Girl 0 elements of both organic and formal style 0 made of copper Harappa o discovered 1856 British railway builders found square tablets of steatite 0 Nude Male Torso 0 red sandstone 4 0 organic style I looks more realistic than formal style Early Buddhist Art in India 321185 BCE Maurya Period Main Site Sarnath Mauryan Empire 0 Invaders from the NW describe Mauryan cities grander than Rome 0 Emperor Ashoka last grade ruler of ME adopted Buddhism as state of Religion 0 Ashokan Columns stone with edictstext carved in 0 only one complete still standing 0 topped with capitals lion etc 0 several in pieces rest lost 0 Lion Capital at Sarnath chunar sandstone 7 tall cream colored 3rd Cent BCE Lions are aniconic I aniconic means Buddha represented in nonhuman form I Buddha often referred to as lion of his clan I wheel chakra also aniconic because of his 1st sermon titled Turning the Wheel of the Law 0000 18572 BCE Shunga Period Main Sites Bhaja Bharhut Bhaa o exterior of a chaitya hall made of living rock a cave chaitya made for individual worship imitates wood architecture I beams on inside strictly for decor no structural support monks live on either side of chaitya in viharas main focus of worship is stupa I circumambulate walk around clockwise and meditate around stupa o lndra over the court of an earthly king 0 riding elephant 0 tree with fence around it bottom left corner signifies sacred 0 lndra is a Hindu god 0 O O O O Bharhut o Torana o torana is the gateway of a stupa when not in a chaitya o stupa is gone only rails remain 0 made of stone 0 aniconic representations of Buddha carved in wall 0 Dream of Queen Maya 0 railing medallion 0 depicts pregnation of Queen Maya Buddha s mother 0 elephant Buddha o supposedly walked out side of mother in painless birth 0 Shlabhaniika o railing medallion 0 Breaking the branch of the Sala Tree standing next to the tree 0 voluptuous curvy woman inviting men through the gate 70 BCE 236 AD Andhra Period Main Sites Sanchi Karle Amaravati o The Grand Stupa at Sanchi 3rd cent BCE to 1st cent CE site restored by Brits oldest stone structure in India begun under Ashoka OOOO Buddha cremated and jarred stupa built to honor him covered in stucco perhaps painted or gilded gateway 3 part top symbolic of 3 jewels of Buddhism I Buddha I Dharma the law I Sangha monastic community stuffed with imagery Buddha lived a sheltered life at the palace and decided to go out into the world hence riding horseback o shalabhanjikas on left and right edges 0 The Great Chaitya at Karle 0 2nd cent 0 more carving 0 made of living rock 0 prana life wrap 0 Marble slab from stupa rail at Amaravati 0 2nd cent 0 1st time seeing Buddha in human form 50 320 CE Kushan Period Main sites Mathura city Gandhara region 0 Kushan emperors collected art from silk trade why we find hellenistic art in Gandhara Mathura o Kushan winter capital 0 Kanishka l o 120 CE red sandstone o script tells us it is Kanishka l o formal style 0 portrait would have been displayed in the royal portrait gallery 0 foreign influence is present in dress typical for Kushan homeland but not for Mathura 0 cream speckles are typical of red sandstone of Mathura Gandhara o influence from classical world due to Alexander the Great amp Spice Trade 0 Reliduary from Bimaran Afghanistan 0 3rd cent but dating of piece is contested gold found inside stupa 2 at Bimaran supposedly held finger of Buddha one of finest gold work pieces in Indian art history Hindu god also depicted OOOOO 0 found inside steatite container 0 Seated Buddha o grey schist 0 model for this style was GrecoRoman Apollo type I wavy hair robe with classical folds contrast Kanishka l o Buddhist Triad 1stcent grey schist Buddha in centre flanked by bodhisattva on left and right Buddha is shown withoutjewelry because he leaves it to end world suffering I bodhisattva have jewelry some with stupa or Buddha in crown 0 Standing Bodhisattva 0 2nd cent 0 stone 0 000 320647 CE Gupta Period Main Sites Mathura Sarnath Ajanta 0 considered India s Golden Age Mathura o softer version of harsh Kushan style 0 red sandstone o rhythmic arm wrinkles o geometric 0 string drapery 0 Standing Buddha o snail shell curls I from cutting hair short I from snails cooling his head long earlobes from earrings in childhood rich family 3 lines on neck cranial bump called ushnisha third eye is called urna hand gesture is called mudra I different types of mudra I this one is the teachinglecturing mudra OOOOO Sarnath o a softer style than Mathura o chunar sandstone o no string drapery but there are snail shell curls Ajanta The First Sermon 4th cent chunar sandstone webbing of handsfeet marks of Buddha tiny people on bottom in reference to chakra Buddha with deer 1st sermon took place at deer park turning wheel of law mudra OOOO middle of nowhere a little behind on the times Cave facade of Buddhist chaitya late 5th cent made of living rock embroidered texture on columns Buddha in human form on stupa 1st for a stupa Nagaraja snake king and his Queen late 5th cent cobra hood fan behind king he is a Hindu deity Wall painting 0 last longer because abandoned body heatair wears painting down The Bodhisattva Padmapani one who holds the lotus O O O O O O O O 0 Early Hindu Art in India Sources PreAryan elements lndoAryan elements W o PreAryan elements 0 fertility phallic shape Vishnu and Shiva lndoAryan elements Vishnu has multiple avatars I Rama Krishna Buddha to show BuddhaBuddhism is lesser Shiva and Pavarti are the parents of Ganesha early prototypes of Hindu temples aihole made of blocks of stone 0 O O 0 Main Sites Mahamallapuram Ellora Mahamallapuram o 5 RathsRatha Shrines 0 7th cent made of living rock granite functional you can enter sculptures help with darshan seeing the divine has a capstone that looks like a door knob on top layers emphasise horizontal exterior becomes more sculptural 3 of the 5 I Durga Rath I Arjuna Rath I Dharmaraja Rath o Descent of Ganges Gangavatarana 0 river Ganges coming down to earth 0 living rock granite OOOOOOO Ellora 8th Century 0 Kailasantha Temple 0 living rock dedicated to Shiva capstone knob 96 in air characteristics of early Hindu architecture stucco meant to look like Mt Kailash home of Shiva o volcanic stone 0 Nandi Shrine inside K Temple 0 has Ramayana text depicted o sculpture or architecture maybe both 0000
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