PY 370- Week 2 notes
PY 370- Week 2 notes PY 370
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Green on Friday January 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PY 370 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Evan S. Kennedy in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 308 views.
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Date Created: 01/23/15
PY 370 week 2 01232015 quotBig 3 Philosophies western civilization 0 rationalism 0 refers to philosophical positions emphasizing an active mind that transforms sensory information o It is capable of creating ideas that are not found in sensory information 0 empiricism 0 source of knowledge experience sensory for most but quotmentalismquot could be included 0 knowledge and intellectual developments are reliant on SENSORY EXPERIENCE 0 British empiricists 16321704 a Political writing was used for the basis of the US Constitution n Philosophy contained in quotAn Essay Concerning Human Understandingquot 1st edition in 1690 5th edition in 1706 Dualism mind and body not identical quotTabula rasaquot blank slate Born with no ideas they must come from experience born with basic operations a Locke s arguments against innate ideas 0 Ideas arrived at by logical deduction still dependent on experience 0 Universal ideas are due to common expenence Ideas present before language still can have experiential referents n Pleasurepain hedonistic lead to complex emotions a Primary and Secondary Qualities Quality is an idea 0 Primary physical Physical ideas size shape 0 Secondary psychological Psychological idea emotions feeHng In Association of ideas 0 Ideas become associated when they are experienced together in the past 0 Natural associations are linked due to natural or reasonable reasons Lead to reasonable beliefs Unnatural associations occur by accident or custom Lead to unreasonable beliefs 0 Superstitions o The theory of associationism matured in the writings of later British empiricists Personal identity I You remain the same person as long as you have memories your earlier experiences and you can re ect upon the conscious experiences Language n Words ideas in the mind of the person who uses them Used to correspond our personal thoughts to others a Nothing exists beyond actual or individual things I Some words exist that are general Rectangle is a general word Knowledge a Most of what we consider knowledge is just chance a Rejected any claim of knowledge without undisputable links between ideas a scienti c knowledge is just the probability of that fact being true or untrue except for mathematics n Probabilistic knowledge is still important and permits us to deal with the world and experiences Heuristics 0 John Locke s Advice on Education Start at home Strengthen the body in order to strengthen the mind Start young and exercise good habits enough to become a pattern Avoid corporal punishment especially for older students because they will associate schooleducation with bad memories Avoid physical rewards such as tokens or candy and use praise or disapproval 0 Religious man who believed that when scholasticism decreased in popularity the result was the popular skepticism of ideasconcepts and that these skepticisms bordered on atheism o Concerned that materialism and determinism would overpower the concept of free will and actingbehaving morally o Attacked materialism by denying that anything actually existed it was just the perception that they existed o Agreed with Locke on simple and complex ideas but failed to believe that ideas are the result of experience in a material world 0 Our only evidence that there is a material world comes from our perceptions To be is to be perceived o This position came to be known as subjective idealism or immaterialism o Formalized by Associationism knowledge originates from complex ideas that are just simple ideas linked together essentially a learning theory Primary laws of associationism contiguity repetition resemblance and causeeffect as articulate by Hume and Hartley Wanted to see moral philosophy achieve the same level of standard that Newton s natural philosophy had Proposed the idea that we can t even know for certain that we exist a Perception of self is based on internal perceptions if these the internal perceptions no longer existed we could have no sense of self Can t be certain of the cause of a certain occurrence just past cooccurrence Didn t deny that absolute causes could exist Denied that we could ever be certain of absolute causes I Must live life according to chance The belief that absolute certainty could ever be de nite con icted the beliefs of the Church which led to con ict 0 O O Considered to be quotfounder of associationismquot First attempt at physiological psychology and physiological correlates to philosophical positions Theory of Nerve Conduction Newton said all matter consisted of vibrating particles Hartley proposed nerve vibrations travel to the brain and lead to sensations Simple ideas occur because of smaller vibrations called vibratuncles that remain in the brain after the sensations stop 0 Tutored my mechanist father 0 Associationism and mental chemistry Mental chemistry the difference between simple and complex ideas can lead to a combination of both simple and complex ideas duplex ideas Believed psychology could be a science The science of psychology must rely on probability because the ruleslaws of psychology could not be certain Mission of psychology a search for the universal laws that manage the operation of all human minds and permit for the calculation of general trends in thought emotions and behavior this does not touch on individual experience 0 Proposed that individual minds and personalities form separately Called it ethology NOT modernday ethology 0 Never completed his work in determining causality but did put forth methods for applying inductive reason 0 Method of agreement determine the common thread of elements in speci c events If X occurs Y occurs 0 Method of difference determine what elements are different in the occurrence of speci c events If X doesn t occur Y doesn t occur 0 Join method combines the methods of agreement and difference in the same instances 0 Concomitant variation determine if changes in X are associated with changes in Y The psychology of o Bain s associationism added some things to traditional empiricist laws Compound association the idea that the laws of contiguity and similarity allow for several ideas to be associated together to form a group Constructive association the idea that power of imagination can cause ideas to form combinations that have never been experienced o SpencerBain principle the principle that if an activity was associated with pleasure than it will likely be repeated and if an activity was associated with pain than it will likely be avoided Multiple times make the associations stronger Rationalist Reaction to Empiricism Knowledge 0 Rationalists knowledge is acquired and also comes innately o Empiricists knowledge is acquired 0 Mind 0 Rationalists the mind is free nonmaterial active logical o Empiricists the mind is determine material passive illogical Behavior 0 Rationalists behavior is purposeful o Empiricists behavior is only probable Commonsense philosophy and faculty psychology 0 Disagrees with Hume Assumes that the existence of reality being physical is common sense 0 The ability of perception was given to humans by God along with other talents of the mind Perception commonsense philosophy direct realism faculty psychology 0 Disciple of Descartes had different ideas on some basic points Pantheism the idea that everything contains God in some form Doubleaspectism mind and body are different aspects of the same substance no free will 0 In uential work on emotion Emotion directed Passion undirected Believed that experience is molded by an quotactive mindquot 0 Active mind l brain 0 Monadology o The universe is composed of monads energy forces that combine to form the material world 0 There are an in nite number of monads They are living active conscious but vary 0 God is totally clear people are unclearfuzzy Conscious v Unconscious 0 Law of continuity nature doesn t leave space or gaps differences occur by small degrees owing o Petite perceptions perception of events beneath the level of consciousness o Apperception conscious experience Kant disagreed with Hume that all knowledge is based on subjective expenence Believed that if causation could not be explained from experience as Hume believed it could not then causation must be instinctive Experience is essential but not enough Categories of thought 0 Natural attributes of the human mind organize and form particular experience such as time space and causeeffect A priori quotindependent of experiencequot innate The mind creates universe as we know it imagination Uncompromising authoritative governs behavior 0 Rational principle close to quotGolden Rulequot Free will not hedonism Guilt is a driving force 0 In uential to the beginnings of psychology but said it was impossible Mind is always transforming attempting to study the mind alters it Can study strength of feeling quantitatively but nothing else Psychic mechanics Herbart s conception of ideas 0 Ideas are fond of and attracted to similar ideas but deter opposite ideas that are incompatible o Sensory experience are where ideas originate but after their origination they have their own existence 0 Not passively associated but have a force of their own 0 Can t be abolished once created just shoved to the unconscious Apperceptive mass the whole of a person s previous experience is necessary to understand a new ideaconcept Applied ideas to education very in uential Middle ages 0 Reduced in uence and power of the church 0 Christian crusades against the Muslims from 1095 through 1291 brought the work of Aristotle and other greek philosophers back to Europe Blended with Christian theology and paved the way for Scholasticism application of Aristotle s empiricist philosophy to Christian theology It led to an acceptance of the use of reason and the study of nature as well as faith to achieve the truth 0 Gutenberg Press increased availability of books 0 Protestantism Martin Luther s challenge to the church early 16th century 0 Telling blow shift from geocentric to heliocentric view of universe Geocentric theory posits that the sun and other heavenly bodies revolve around the earth Heliocentric theory posits that the earth and other planets and stars in our solar system revolve around the sun 0 The Galileo Affair 0 Galileo was found guilty of heresy in 1633 and placed under house arrest for the remainder of his life All his present and future writings were banned quotEppur si muovequot Renaissance Humanism 1600 Humanism O O O O Individualism individual people can positively impact the world Personalization of religion religion can be in uenced personally Reemergence of past scholars thanks to the in ux of ancient texts after the crusades AntiAristotle reemergence of Plato as a highly in uential o Zeitgeist 17th century 0 O O Mechanism Determinism Reductionism quotclockwork universequot spirit of mechanism belief that there is no end to the machines that can be developed Francis Bacon 15611626 Radical empiricist also a positivist emphasized inductive logic 0 0 Induction reasoning from the particular to the general starting with no assumptions Themes or principles may be observed after seeing a large numbers of particular occurrences Deduction reasoning from the general to the particular Conclusions follow from principles or theories 0 Total distrust of theory and rationalization Sources of error idols O Cave persona own experience education beliefs 0 Tribe human nature intellectual faults cognitive biases o Marketplace words unreliable nature of language 0 Theatre philosophy of religion Believed that quotExperimenta luciferaquot light bringing experiments would lead to quotExperimenta fructiferaquot fruitful experiments Isaac Newton 16421727 Understanding how the universe worked was a pathway to understanding God True understanding could be achieved through mathematical relationships Principles of Newtonian Science 0 God created the world but does not actively intervene in the world so God s will cannot be invoked as an explanation o The world is governed by natural laws and there are no 0 exceptions We may not know all of these laws at a given time and have to settle for uncertainty One can t explain natural events by asserting inherent properties Objects fall because of the force of gravitynot because they were meant to fall Explanations should be the simplest available If there is more than one Occam s razor KSS should dictate the choice Classi cation is not explanation Understanding why something occurs requires reducing it to mathematical terms of space time matter and force Rene Descartes 15961650 Mathematician physiologist and founder of modern philosophy quotCogito Ergo Sumquot four rules for the attainment of certainty O O O 0 rule 1 accept nothing as true that is not selfevidently true rule 2 reduce complex problems into their simplest form rule 3 solve problems from moving from the simple to the complex rule 4 recheck the reasoning to be sure that no steps were omitted Example quotAnalytic Geometryquot 0 1st intuition l deduction Doctrine of Ideas 0 Innate ideas Clear distinct subjectively true arrived at by use of reason independent of experience Examples perfection geometry God 0 DerivedRe exive ldeas Based on environmentally induced experience quotCartesian Dualismquot interactionsism 0 used a hydraulic model in uenced by moving statues in park mind immaterial amp free body material mechanical and determined ventricles lled with quotanimal spiritsquot and connected to hollow tubes in nerves mind and body interact at Pineal Gland like a puppet operated by pneumatic tubes sleepdreams ebb and ow of animal spirits emotions determined by amount of animal spirits can be modulated by mind re exes direct result of sense organs being connected to the brain by the delicate threads and animal spirits in the nerves Cartesian Dichotomy Animals qualitatively different re exive machines without immaterial mind operate according to same principles as human body 0 Contributions of Descartes O 0000 Mindbody interaction Cartesian Dualism Brain as center of mental function Mechanical analysis of body and behavior Re exology Major in uence on philosophy
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