Psych Chapter 10 Notes March 22/24
Psych Chapter 10 Notes March 22/24 Psyc 2010-003
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alise Robison on Sunday March 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010-003 at Clemson University taught by Chong Hyon Pak in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Chapter 10: Cognitive Abilities & Intelligence March 22, 2016 Intelligence Do we have an inborn general mental capacity (intelligence)? If so, can we quantify this capacity as a meaningful number? What is Intelligence? Intelligence (in all cultures) is the o Ability to learn from experience o Solve problems o Use our knowledge to adapt to new situations In research studies, intelligence is whatever the intelligence test measures Intelligence: Ability or Abilities? Have you ever thought that since people’s mental abilities are so diverse, it may not be justifiable to label those abilities with only one word, intelligence? Cognitive Ability The capacity to reason, remember, understand, solve problems, and make decisions Measures of cognitive abilities often determine the educational and employment opportunities people have or don’t have What is Intelligence? Intelligence is o A psychological construct It is not directly observable (like height, or hair color) But may be measureable Is theorized to exist The question is, what is it? Most psychologists agree with Sternberg, intelligence includes o Having knowledge o Efficiently using that knowledge to reason about the world o Using that reasoning adaptively in different environments Brief History of Intelligence Tests Binet (1904): Can French children doing poorly in school be identified? Binet’s test is modified by Termen Termen introduced the concept of IQ o IQ = (mental age)/(chronological age) x 100 Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale 3 rd Edition (WAIS-III) Measures of: o Verbal IQ o Performance IQ o Full Scale IQ Can also calculate factor scores that reflect a person’s: o Cognitive processing speed o Working memory o Perceptual organization o Verbal comprehension Used frequently in research settings Picture completion: what part is missing from a picture Picture arrangement: pictures tell a story, but they are in the wrong order. Put them in the right order so that they tell a story The normal distribution of IQ scores in the population is a bell- shaped curve with a mean of 100 What makes a Good Test? Advantages of Tests Tests are standardized o The conditions surrounding the test are as similar as possible for everyone who takes it o Said to be “objective,” not “subjective” Tests summarize the test taker’s performance with a specific number, or score o Allows for the calculation of norms which describe the frequency of particular scores Test Reliability and Validity Reliability: if you take the same test, you get the same score o Low reliability: different results from one time to another o High reliability: same results from one time to another o For teenagers and adults, reliability is high, generally above +.90 Not children, because their IQ is changing Validity: is the test measuring what you think it is measuring; is it valid o Low validity: inaccurate conclusions and predictions o High validity: accurate conclusions and predictions o Reasonably good validity for predicting certain criteria But not a perfect measure of how “smart” people are Factors Affecting IQ Both genetic and environmental factors interact to influence cognitive abilities Identical twins reared together have the most correlation IQs are Increasing…Why? Flynn effect: in 1932, the mean was 100. In 1997, the mean was 120. IQ IS INCREASING Public health, educational system, technology, food quality and quantity, sanitary conditions all improved from 1932 Why are IQ Scores Related to Family Income? Parent’s jobs and status depend on characteristics related to their own intelligence Parent’s income affects child’s environment Motivational differences in socio-economic levels Those with higher IQs may have greater opportunities to earn more money Conditions that Can Raise IQ Scores Development of environment enrichment programs o Project Head Start o Intervention programs for at-risk infants Do the gains achieved by preschool enrichment programs last? o Long-term benefits are disputed o Fading effects probably due more to reduced motivation, not loss of cognitive ability Studying Intelligence Psychometric Approach (compare this to the behaviorist approach) Information-Processing Approach The Information Processing Approach to Understanding Intelligence This approach focuses on the processes involved in intelligent behavior, not test scores and other products of intelligence Relates basic mental processes (thinking, reasoning) to the concept of intelligence Research suggests that intelligence is o More attentional “resources” o d o Higher perceptual speed Why Give Intelligence Tests? Educational settings o Screening and diagnosis o Selection and placement o Evaluation and research Medical settings Military/job settings Motivation Motivation: the factors that influence the initiation, direction, intensity, and persistence of behavior Motivation cannot be directly observed, it is inferred from what can be observed Theories of Motivation Where do motivations come from? Instinct Theory (Evolutionary Perspective) We behave the way we do because of instincts; it is innate (biological approach) Instincts o Automatic, involuntary, and unlearned behavior patterns triggered by particular stimuli Instinct theory describes behavior, but does not explain it You can make up many instincts for anything Drive Reduction Theory Imbalance in a system in your body o Some system in the body is not physiologically balanced Creates a NEED o A biological requirement for well-being Brain interprets the body’s need as a DRIVE o Drive is a feeling of arousal Arousal Theory what is arousal? o A general level of activation; can be many different things (level activity in brain, level of sensory stimulation People behave in ways to keep their arousal at optimum levels Boredom = low arousal o Motivates you to do something to increase arousal A Hierarchy of Motives/Needs Abraham Maslow (1970) suggested that some needs have priority over others Physiological needs (bottom of pyramid)—need to satisfy hunger and thirst Safety needs—need to feel that the world is organized and predictable; need to feel safe, secure, stable Belongingness and love needs—need to love and be loved, to belong and be accepted; need to avoid loneliness and alienation Esteem needs—need for self-esteem, achievement, competence, and independence; need for recognition and respect from others Self-actualization needs (top of pyramid)—need to live up to one’s fullest and unique potential Hunger and Eating Hunger: the general state of wanting to eat Satiety: the general state of no longer wanting to eat Physiology of Hunger Tsang (1938) removed rat stomachs, connected the esophagus to the small intestines, and the rats still felt hungry and ate food Body chemistry and brain o Levels of glucose in the blood are monitored by receptors (neurons) in the stomach, liver, and intestines o They send signals to the hypothalamus in the brain Hypothalamic centers o Lateral hypothalamus (LH) brings on hunger o The reduction of blood glucose stimulates orexin in the LH which leads rats to eat o The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) depresses hunger Hypothalamus and hormoes o The hypothalamus monitors a number of hormones that are related to hunger Hormone Tissue Response Orexin increase Hypothalamus Increases hunger Ghrelin increase Stomach Increases hunger Insulin increase Pancreas Increases hunger Leptin increase Fat cells Decreases hunger PYY increase Digestive tract Decreases hunger Set Point Manipulating the lateral and ventromedial hypothalamus alters the body’s “weight thermostat” If weight is lost, food intake increases and energy expenditure decreases If weight is gained the opposite takes place Eating Disorders Obesity (a BMI over 30) o Causes are varied Brains may be slower to realize satiety Brains may be less sensitive to leptin Genetic predisposition Anorexia Nervosa o Eating disorder characterized by starvation, excessive preoccupation with losing wait o Psychological disorder; exacerbated by cultural notions of thinness Social effects of obesity o When women applicants were made to look overweight, subjects were less willing to hire them o Women judged more harshly than men QUIZ 1. To determine whether a child’s intellectual development was fast or slow, Binet and Simon assessed the child’s a. Divergent thinking b. Emotional intelligence c. Mental age d. Intrinsic motivation ANSWER: C 2. Comparing the average performance of the initial WAIS standardization sample with the average performance of the most recent WAIS standardization sample provides convincing evidence of a. Heritability b. The g factor c. The Flynn effect d. Intrinsic motivation ANSWER: C 3. If a test yields consistent results every time it is used, it has a high degree of a. Standardization b. Predictive validity c. Reliability d. Content validity ANSWER: C 4. A measure of intelligence based on head size is likely to have a ______ level of reliability and a _____ level of validity. a. Low; low b. Low; high c. High; low d. High; high ANSWER: C 5. Intelligence test scores are LEAST similar for a. Nontwin siblings reared together b. Fraternal twins reared together c. Identical twins reared together d. Identical twins reared apart ANSWER: A 6. Increasing years of schooling over the last half-century have most likely contributed to a. Stereotype threat b. The Flynn effect c. The normal curve d. Savant syndrome ANSWER: B 7. The first modern test of intelligence was developed in a. Germany b. Britain c. France d. Italy ANSWER: C 8. Originally IQ was defined as a. Mental age divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100 b. Chronological age divided by mental age and multiplied by 100 c. Mental age subtracted from chronological age and multiplied by 100 d. Chronological age subtracted from mental age and divided by 100 ANSWER: A 9. Which of the following provides the strongest evidence of environment’s role in intelligence? a. Adopted children’s intelligence scores are more like their adoptive parents’ scores than biological parents’ b. Children’s intelligence scores are mores strongly related to their mothers’ scores than to their fathers’ c. Children moved from a deprived environment into an intellectually enriched one show gains in intellectual development d. The intelligence scores of identical twins raised separately are no more alike than those of siblings ANSWER: C 10. If a test is standardized, this means that a. It accurately measures what it is intended to measure b. A person’s test performance can be compared with that of a representative pretested group c. Most test scores will cluster near the average d. The test will yield consistent results when administered on different occasions ANSWER: B