Week 6 - Psychology 202
Week 6 - Psychology 202 PSY 202
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Janiel Celeena Santos on Thursday November 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 202 at University of Oregon taught by Measelle J in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Mind and Society >2 in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 11/05/15
Week 6 Development Developmental Psychology 0 Focus is on change across the life span and the emergence of greater levels of complexity Field interested in development at multiple levels of functioning Central Question in Development 01 How does deve0pment change happen 0 Continuous gradual alteration of behavior Smooth and continual change Quantitative differences possible but in the same developmental function or behavior An accumulated change Same underlying systems but greater quantitative amount motor skills 0 Discontinuous stages of growth that are qualitatively different and usually xed Stage like development Stages separated by rapid growth Qualitative difference Ex Puberty 02 Are there important periods of development Irreversible periods of Deve0pment 0 Critical period Age range during which certain experience must occur for development to proceed normally eg prenatal development acquisition of one s native language Sensitive Period An optimal age range for certain experiences but if experiences occur another time normal development is still possible eg Second Language 0 Critical and Sensitive periods also deve0pmenta periods where harmful exposures can lead to permanent and lasting deve0pmenta m During Critical periods more fundamental During sensitive periods more diffuse o Prenatal Environment Prenatal period is very important Teratogens Developmental toxicity 0 Smoking Pulmonary Hypertension Learning disabilities Cleft lippalate Shortersmaller Brain volumes smaller 0 Postnatal Deprivation and Brain Development Smaller brain Animals raised in zoos have brains 2030 smaller than those from the wild Severely neglected kids have brains 2030 smaller than other children Evidence of quotcatchupquot especially for kids adopted into therapeutic periods 0 03 Can development refer to the acquisition or the loss of behavior or function 0 Yes 0 Synaptic Pruning brain39s way of removing neural connections that are not being used What Develops Lanouaoe Develooment 0 Development Birth 3 months Actions generate sounds 35 Months begin cooing and laughing 57 Months babbling damaba 78 Months canonical babbling bababa Approx 12 Months rst words 1224 months Telegraphic Speech 0 Lanouaoe in Newborns Newborns recognize language used by the mother All medically intact children acquire at least one language in early childhood Newborns of English speaking mothers preferred to hear English over Tagalog and vis versa Evidence for nativistsempiricist perspective No human society has ever NOT used language 0 Newborns are able to discriminate all soeech sounds that occur in all languages Ability decreases for vowels at 6 months Ability for consonants decreases at 10 months 0 Infant Directed Speech Increased pitch A lot of repetition Shorter sequences Clear and distinct Exaggerated prosodic features quotParantesiquot Coonitive Deve0pment 0 Development of the emergence of the ability to think and understand Tricky to study How to study infant cognitive development 0 Nature vs Nurture is cognitive development mainly determined by an individual39s innate qualities or by their personal experiences 0 When Does Learning Start Prenatally Pregnant women read stories aloud twice a day for last six weeks of pregnancy Shortly after birth infants played stories heard in the utero and other stories lnfants adjusted their sucking rate in order to hear the familiar story Preferential looking infants look longer at stimuli that s more interesting Orientina Response infants pay more attention to novel stimuli than stimuli to which they ve been habituated 0 Memory Adults rarely remember events that occurred before age 34 yrs Why 0 Development of autobiographical memory 0 Language learning Perception of information Jean Piaget 18961980 gt Piaget39s model of Cognitive Development Learning 0 Assimilation The process of tting new information into preexisting cognitive schemes New experiences are reinterpreted to t into or assimilate with old idea 0 Accommodation The process of taking new information in one39s environment and altering preexisting schemas in order to t in the new information This happens when the existing schema knowledge does not work and needs to be changed to deal with a new object or situation 0 Sensorimotor Stage Birth 2 yrs Acquiring information through their senses and motor exploration Recognize the self as an agent of action and begin to act intentionally Achievement of object permanence sometime around 68 months signi cant cognitive achievement 0 Preoperational Stage 27yrs Uses language begins to represent objects with images and words Reasons intuitively and largely based on appearance egocentric thinking However begins to think symbolically Can pretend Beginning to attribute mental state Theory of Mind 0 Concrete Operational 712 Increased classi cation skills Beginning of logical reasoning End of egocentrism 0 Formal Operational Stage 12 Able to think logically and abstractly Able to generate and systematically test hypotheses Able to consider multiple viewpoints at once Cognitive limitations related to 0 Limited experience lnvincibility Challenges to Piaget gt Not much room for differences across individuals or across cultures gt Children might have some abilities that are characteristic of one stage and other abilities that are characteristic of a different stage gt Piaget may have underestimated the age at which some skills object permanence come online gt Piaget underestimated the role of others in infantchild learning Vygotsky39s Theory of Proximal Development Development 2 gt Social Development 0 Socialization gt Attachment Relationship 0 Attachment is a strong intimate and emotional connection between people that persists over time and across circumstances 0 John Bowlby described infant behaviors that engage adults and adult behaviors that increase attachment gt Theory of Attachment biological basis for attachment 0 Attachment behavior is reliant on caregiver o Promotes proximity and survival 0 Security threats activate attachment system Attachment 0 Almost all infants become attached to caregiver 0 Individual differences in attachment Quality parental care infant expectations of parent Quality of attachment relationship Expectations of the parent quotinternal working model of self and tohers Quality fo care and security of attachment 0 Based on repeated daily interation sequences the brain of children and corresponding behaviors cohere into a pattern that re ects an attachment strategy Risk factors for intsentive parenting o Caregiver39s own early attachment history 0 Amount of stress in caregiver39s life 0 Mental illness 0 Social support available to caregiver Social isolations deprived of role models resources and relief Spousalpartner relationship Criticalsensitive periods of parenting 0 Hormonal changes underlying pregnancy estradiol progesteroneoxytocin enhance caregiving communication lncrease interaction with fetus during late pregnancy Increased maternal feelings 2024 weeks of gestation Lack of such hormonal predictive of goodenoughparenting
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