In Class Judaism Notes and Book Notes on Chapter 9 Christianity
In Class Judaism Notes and Book Notes on Chapter 9 Christianity RELSTDS 102
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Bronge on Thursday November 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to RELSTDS 102 at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh taught by Dr. Jeffrey Kaplan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see World Religions in Religious Studies at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh.
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Date Created: 11/05/15
Class Notes 11315 Judaism For Western God is the Creator All three Judaism Christian and Islam Video Barbie Doll was ultimatelyJewish Ruth a Jewish woman Ken was named after her son Jews have many subtribes First record ofJews were rst found in Egypt Many American Jews got their education from Hollywood The Red Heifer A virgin cow young but doesn39t have to be young Important because it s perfectly red This has to be red and examined to be decided whether it is the one quotGeulaquot name of this particular cow This particular cow was genetically engineered does that count Or does it only count if God sends one 2 arguments going along with this If the books don39t say you can39t then you can39t and some say if the books say you can do it you can Judaism is the root of the 3 Western Traditions Islam came out ofJudaism Some Preliminary Issues ofJudaism 1 Faith vs Historyno necessary contradiction a Jews will never say the bible is perfect it is a book of great ideas and lessons Is it literally true Maybe maybe not Jews don39t argue about gay marriage not important to them 2 Sacred vs Secular History a Pastpresentfuture are all known by God b History will end c Posthistorical period millennium for Christians Jews have a way different views for the end of the world Only the most religious Jews remember at the end God will send a Rabbi 40 days and 40 nights the Rabbi Joseph will lay and then Rabbi David Huge Oak Table In the Jewish tradition women will be in the perfect world too but they won t study Most Patriarchal religion in the West 3 HebrewsJews as a people apart a In the bible it said for Abraham something involving him If you intermarry you are considered out of the religion Dangers of assimilation have to do with the harshness WheneverJew have been accepted in a culture most of them assimilate 4 Threat of Assimilation a Many Hebrews did not return from the captivities in Egypt and Babylon b Jews could not assimilate during the diaspora c Jews could assimilate for the rst time in America quotThe Silent Holocaustquot Conservative Jewish men are not allowed to touch women or even brush up against them Complete separation especially during menstruation American mainstream Judaism is not a lifestyle like it is with the orthodox 5 Judaism is adaptable to circumstances a Judaism evolved from 4 DISTINCT PHASES i Nomadic Tribal Faith ii Templebased cult with an hereditary priesthood iii Around the time ofJesus s death wandering groups led by rabbis and linked by Text Basis was now Text iv Today Judaism is a modern transnational faith 6 Stringency a Very strict a tough religion MostJews follow Halacha 613 laws followed by men b Being young and Jewish is Not fun at all c NonJews live in such a gentle way 7 Fragmentation a Lack of Unity never been a successful Jewish Kingdom Sooner or later everyone starts to ght with each other 8 Battle of prophets vs Kings a Prophets are people who speak for God King are more interested in raising an army Ruling a land Chapter 9 Book Notes Christianity The Life and Teachings of Jesus Christianity grew out ofJudaism Jesus who is the originator and at the early scriptural books that speak of his life Nazareth a town of northern Israel and of a birth by the virginal mother Mary in Bethlehem a town not far south ofJerusalem No portrait of we now of was painted ofJesus while he was alive there are many different images Almost everything we know about Jesus comes from the four gospels of the New Testament The gospels are accounts written by later believers of the life ofJesus Jesus was hung on the cruci x on a Friday and was seen as an apparition on Sunday claiming that on the third day he rose again Jesus in the New Testament Gospels The four gospels are written remembrances ofJesus s words and deeds recorded some years after his death by people who believed in him While Jesus thought of God as creator and sustainer of the universe he also thought of God in a personal way as his father It is Jesus s extremely special relationship to God that is central to Christianity The Gospels say that Jesus taught differently He had such an emphasis on Universal love he also liked directness and strived to go beyond details to the heart of things He also seemed to tread woman as equals and spoke to them in public without hesitation A high respect for the unmarried as well recognizing that celibacy was valued in the Jewish movement during that time which may have had an in uence on him to remain unmarried The Two Great Commandments His teachings called the Two Great Commandments combine two strong elements a love for God and an ethical call for kindness towards others These commandments already existed in the Hebrew scripture Impending Judgement was called apocalypticism In this particular view the Kingdom of God would soon be seen as a social and political reality Jesus s main focus was bringing the Kingdom of God in each human heart Early Christian Beliefs and History The rst preaching of the Christian message has been called the Birthday of the Church The early Christian group that remained in Jerusalem seems to have been almost entirelyJewish and was led by James Paul and Pauline Christianity As the Jewish Christianity ofJerusaIem and Israel weakened Christianity among nonJews grew because of the missionary Paul Paul originally saw Christianity as a threat to Judaism but his view changed after he found a new understanding ofJesus The focus in Paul39s thought is less on the historical Jesus and more on the meaning of the cosmic Christ For Christianity views with Judaism were sort of changed around Circumcision was replaced by baptism as a sign of initiation Paul39s views on the meaning ofJesus on morality and on Christian practice became the norm for most of the Christian world For Paul Jesus was a cosmic gure the preexistent image of God the Wisdom of God and the Lord of the Universe Sin had brought to human beings the punishment of death The New Testament Its Structure and Artistry Divided into four parts 1 The Gospels a Describe the life and teachings ofJesus Tradition has attributed the gospels to four early followers Matthew Mark Luke and John who are called evangelists 2 The Acts of the Apostles a Tells initial spread of Christianity 3 The Epistles a Letters to the early Christians primarily to Paul 4 Revelation a A visionary book which foretells in symbolic language the triumph of Christianity The Christian Canon Some of the books in the New Testament were not universally accepted in several countries Agreement on which books belonged to the sacred canon of the New Testament took several hundred years Christians call the Hebrew Scriptures added to the bible the Old Testament Bible contains Hebrew Scriptures Old Testament and Christian writings New Testament Interpretation of the Bible has been and still is a major cause of con ict and division between Christianity The Early Spread of Christianity Christianity is a missionary religion The Gospel of Mark tells how Jesus sent out his disciples in pairs to preach throughout the land of Israel Inspired by the Roman Empire39s hierarchical political organization Christians developed a style of Church organization that has been called monarchical Popular centers would have a single bishop who would be in charge of lowerranking clergy Four Early Patriarchates arose Rome Alexandria Antioch and Jerusalem Patriarch came to apply to important bishops who were leaders of an entire region The special tite Pope comes from the word quotfatherquot In uences on Christianity at the End of the Roman Empire Two individuals who had a great impact on Christianity were a bishop Augustine and a monk Benedict Augustine From Africa and devoted himself to church work Ordained rst as a priest and then a bishop he decided to live a monastic style of life in the company of other priests A huge in uence and all Western Christianity was basically Augustinian Christianity for over a thousand years Benedict and Monastic Ideal Augustine after his conversion chose to become a priest and live with other priests and monks in a life devoted to prayer and study This monastic way of life became a signi cant part of Christianity Monasticism appears not only in Christianity but also in Hinduism Buddhism and Daoism A monk is not necessarily a priest nor need a priest to be a monk A monk is simply any male who chooses to leave society to live a celibate life of religious devotion a priest is a person authorized to lead public worship The rst Christian monks that we know of are called the Desert Fathers Paul the Hermit Antony of Egypt Pachomius and Simon the Stylite The real founder of Western Monasticism was Benedict of Nursia Benedictine Monks became the missionary force that spread Christianity The Eastern Orthodox Church Another form of Christianity formed known as the Eastern Orthodox Church developed and spread in Russia Bulgaria the Ukraine Romania Greece and elsewhere Early Development Bishop of Constantinople He became one of the most in uential bishops in the East Church Councils are of ultimate authority Monasticism in the Eastern Church Eastern Orthodoxy has created great monastic centers The most famous is on Mount Athos in Greece the current center of monasticism in that region Eastern Orthodox Beliefs Controversy over where Jesus stood on the family line Jesus had two naturesdivine and humanthat were united in only one person Another controversy was images butJohn of Damascus a monk and writer came strongly to the defense of religious imagesor icons John argues that images served a purpose to help those who could not read Christianity in the Middle Ages Christianity had made astonishing leapsat rst facing persecution then becoming the of cial religion of the empire and nally rising as the religion of all Europe Christianity began to prosper it preached positive outlooks on life and seemed to grab attention Christian Mysticism Mysticism in theistic religions indicates a direct experience of the divine and a oneness with God Jesus was seen as a role model for the mystics The Gospel ofJohn which has a strong mystical tendency sees Jesus in this light The Crusades the Inquisition and Christian Control One Signi cant Development in Christianity was the founding of nonmonastic religious communities called religious orders An order is a religious organization of men or women who live communal celibate lives follow a set of written rules and have a special purpose The Late Middle Ages The complete ousting of the crusaders from Israel marked the end of the Christian optimism that had been typical of the earlier middle ages By far the greatest development of the late Middle Ages was the invention of printing with movable type The Protestant Reformation As institutions age they naturally lose some of their earnestness and purity prompting attempts at reform Reform was inevitable Soon another great turning point would occur in Christianity The North and South of Europe would painfully split along religious lines and Western Christianity would divide into Protestantism and Catholicism Martin Luther Martin Luther a German priest was the rst reformer to gain a large following and to survive and his success encouraged others who also sought reforms Luther convinced of his own personal sinfulness entered religious life as a young man because of a vow made during a lightning storm Luther was successful with many writings and his successful teachings Forms of Protestantism The right of every individual to radically question and reinterpret Christian belief and practice is at the heart of Protestant Christianity This Protestant Principle has created the many different branches associated Lutheranism Martin Luther s version of the reform emphasized faith and the authority of the Bible Calvinism Calvin39s thought is sometimes seen to be darker than Luther s because he saw human nature as being basically sinful and almost irresistibly drawn to evil If God is allpowerful and all knowing then God has already decreed who will be saved and who is damned The Church of England King Henry Vll unites elements of the Reformation with other traditional practices Few others Pg 375376 The Development of Christianity Following the Protestant Reformation Catholic Reformation Counter Reformation Although the Protestant Reformation was a powerful movement Roman Catholicism not only withstood its challenges but also grew and changed in response to it Several new religions came into existence to defend and spread Catholic teaching International Spread of Christianity The New Testament contains the injunction to quotbaptize all nationsquot Over the past 500 years these movements have spread Christianity to every continent and turned it into a truly international religion The missionary movement gave both men and women new opportunities to spread Christianity as well as lead unusual lives Nontraditional Christianity Roman Catholic Protestant and Eastern Orthodoxall sprung from Protestant origins Church of Jesus Christ of Latterday Saints quotMormonquot one of the fastest growing denominations in the world Claim to be perfect restored Christianity many disagree pointing out major differences between them and traditional Christianity Now found worldwide Joseph Smith is the founder Most important text is the Book of Mormon Containing one hundred revelations given from God to Joseph Smith Christian Practice Christianity is very much a religion of doctrines but it is also a religion ritual and after more than two thousand years these rituals have become rich and complex Sacraments and Other Rituals 1 Baptism a The ritual cleansing with water is universally used in Christianity as initiation rule 2 Eucharist a Lord s Supper the bread and wine are literally seen as the blood and body of Christ Con rmation Reconciliation Marriage Ordination Anointing of the Sick FP P PPquot The Christian Year Most important festivals are Christmas and Easter Christmas being the birth of Christ and Easter being the resurrection of Christ Preparation for Easter comes along Lent which is fasting and giving up pleasures Lent begins on Ash Wednesday A week before Easter Palm Sunday recalls Jesus s entry into Jerusalem before his death Holy Thursday recounts his last supper and Good Friday remembers his death When Easter arrives it is a rejoicing Devotion to Mary Praying on the Rosary for Mary Hail Mary etc Appreciation for Mary became much more common Devotion to Mary is much less in Protestant Christianity since they believe attention is being taken away from Jesus but belief in Orthodox and Catholic branches continues to remain strong Christianity and the Arts Christianity has contributed much to architecture the visual arts and music This artistic legacy is one of the greatest gifts of Christianity to world culture a gift that can be experienced easily by traveling Architecture Many different styles emerged from Christianity and some of these examples can be seen as the Basilica and Gothic Art By the second century pictures ofJesus started to emerge Christian art however began to emerge again after the controversies and has increasingly been in uenced by nonWestern traditions and cultures Music Wanting to keep music popular and simple Protestant churches have supported the writing and singing of hymns but often have avoided more complex compositions They have allowed the use of organs and pianos but mostly shun other types of instruments Christianity Faces the Modern World One of the greatest intellectual challenges to Christianity has been the growth of science and it will remain so Critical approaches to the study of nature and modern study of the scriptures have questioned many of these miracle stories Another challenge is the rising focus on material realities money and possessions No one studies theology for success anymore simply business
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