PSYX 233 Personality October 2015
PSYX 233 Personality October 2015 PSYX 233 - 01
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PSYX 233 - 01
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Notetaker on Thursday November 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYX 233 - 01 at University of Montana taught by Christa Marie Neuman (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Fund of Psychology of Aging in Psychlogy at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 11/05/15
Personality Personality: o Dispositional traits Big Five traits Openness o Vivid imagination, willingness to try something new Conscientiousness o Hardworking, ambitious, energetic, perseverance Extroversion o Warmth, gregariousness, assertiveness, positive emotions Agreeableness o Opposite of antagonism, distress, callousness Neuroticism o Lack of control, anxiety, fear, loneliness Based on the comparison between individuals Your outer limits are determined in relativity to others Distinctive “enough” Enough is ambiguous If constructs were not distinctive, we wouldn’t be able to tell between happy and sad, happy and content, etc. Cross-situational Function of personality is to remain consistent enough that you should maintain goals throughout life o Personal concerns o Life narrative Personality research o State processes: act with dispositional traits to create transient short-term changes in emotion Personality itself stays the same Mood, hunger, anxiety, etc. o Personal concerns: act in tandem with self-regulatory processes that include such processes as primary and secondary control Primary: changing environment to meet goals Secondary: changing goals to meet environment o Cognitive processes: act jointly with “life narratives” to create natural interaction that occur between storyteller and listener processes central in organizing life stories Five-factor model o Trait: “any distinguishable, relatively enduring way that one individual differs from others” (Guilford, 1959) o Trait theories: assume little change in personality occurs across adulthood Big five traits(OCEAN) Critiques: lexical hypothesis, culturally bound o What about the role of experience? Long term stability Personality adjustment: developmental changes in terms of their adaptive value and functionality o Contributing to society Relationships with peers, etc. o Everyday life running smoothly Has adaptive value Personality growth: ideal end states o Transcendence, wisdom, integrity o Long term effects of what happens in your life Who you are coming, who you want to become Big 5 changes in Personality o Age changes More in individuals than in the general population o Neuroticism decreases As we age, we tend to “grow out of” personality disorders o Agreeableness and conscientiousness increases o Openness to experience decreases a little People with more openness are more optimistic in general o What are the exceptions? Needs an environmental push for it to occur Dispositional traits across adulthood o Tend to be stable when data are averaged over large groups of people More variability with the individual Personal concerns: constructs not reducible to traits o Need to be viewed as conscious descriptions of what person is trying to accomplish during a given period of life o Morals/values Carl Jung: o Personality development in adulthood Inner experiences are important Philosophical v scientific viewpoint Based more on symbols o Different part of personality must be balanced Expressed in “normal” ways, neurotic ways, or dreams o Two basic orientations of the ego Introversion and extroversion Introversion is a function of age Increases with age, due to younger people needing to reach out more to build a life Ambiavert: A little bit of both introversion and extroversion Must deal with the outside world in an effective way in order to evaluate inner feelings and values o The outside world and your “inside world” must be harmonious Masculinity and femininity Working hard on expressing one while suppressing the other Gender role- stereotypes As people grow older they start to let out suppressed part of their personality Ideas of self and personality are organized by symbols and stories o Theory: Emphasizes that each aspect of a person’s personality must be in balance with all the others Two basic orientations of the ego The first theorist to discuss personality development during adulthood Invented the notion of the midlife crisis Argued that people move toward integrating these dimensions (intro/extroversion, masculinity/femininity) as they age, with midlife being an especially important period Personal concerns and qualitative stages in adulthood o Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development First theorist to develop a truly lifespan theory of personality development Eight stages represent eight great struggles he believed people must undergo Trust v mistrust (infancy) o Significant relationship with maternal people o Basic strength: hope Autonomy v shame/doubt (early childhood) o Significant relationship with paternal people o Basic strength: will Initiative v guilt (play age) o Significant relationship with basic family o Basic strength: purpose Industry v inferiority (school age) o Significant relationship with neighborhood/school o Basic strength: competence Identity v identity confusion (adolescence) o Significant relationship with peer groups/outgroups o Basic strength: love Intimacy v isolation (young adulthood) o Significant relationship with partners in friendship, sex competition, cooperation o Basic strength: love Generativity v stagnation (adulthood) o Significant relationship with divided labor and shared household o Basic strength: care Ego v despair (old age) o Significant relationship with humankind, “my kind” o Basic strength: wisdom Each struggle has a certain time of ascendancy Epigenetic principle: each struggle must be resolved to move onto the next conflict Theories based on life transitions: o Among the most popular theories of adult personality development o Based on the idea that adults go through a series of life transitions, or passages However, few of these theories have substantial databases None are based on representative samples o Life transitions tend to overestimate the commonality of age-linked transitions Not true that you have to complete one stage before going onto the next In search of the midlife crisis o A key idea in life transition theories is the midlife crisis The idea that at middle age we take a good look at ourselves in the hopes of achieving a better understanding of who we are Many adults face difficult issues and make behavioral changes o Very little data supports the claim that all people inevitably experience the midlife crisis Most middle-aged people do point to both gains and losses, positives and negatives in their lives Has to do with culture/environment o Transition may be better characterizes as a midlife correction Reevaluating ones’ roles and dreams and making the necessary corrections Conclusions about personal concerns o Evidence supports a sharp change in personal concerns as adults age