November 3rd & 5th Notes
November 3rd & 5th Notes PSYC-11762-001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista on Thursday November 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC-11762-001 at Kent State University taught by Robin L. Joynes in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 11/05/15
Tuesday Thursday November 3 November 5 General Psychology Chapter 5 part3 Learning OHow do you reward a behavior that never occurs A Shaping reward successive approximations of the goal behavior has been mastered Example Teaching a dog to roll over You may initially reward any behavior that is remotely related to the desired response such as lying down Once lying down has been established then you reward the dog only if it lies down and turns on its back Simply lying down is no longer rewarded Once that behavior has been established the reward may only be given when the dog turns all the way over You have trained the dog to roll over Continuous Reinforcement reinforcement occurs after every target response Partial Reinforcement Sometime the target response is reinforced and sometimes it is not reinforced Partial Reinforcement Schedules Fixed Ratio FR there is a set number of times that you must make the response before you are reinforced Fixed Interval FI there is a set interval of time that must pass before you can make the response and get reinforced Exams Variable Ratio VR the number of times that you must make the response before you are reinforced varies from trial to trial Slot Machine Variable Interval VI the amount of time that must pass before you get reinforced varies from trial to trial Pop Quizzes Observational Learning Acquiring knowledge skills rules strategies beliefs and attitudes by watching others Also calledModeling Social Learning and Imitation Characteristics of Observational Learning Eliminates trial and error learning Takes less time than operant conditioning Involves four main processes Tuesday Thursday November 3 November 5 Four Main Processes Attention Retention Motor Reproduction Reinforcement motivation Albert Bandura s Bobo Doll Experiment Does watching aggressive behavior on TV cause a person to act less aggressively cause a person to act more aggressively lt Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning in real life Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect behaviors that have been partially reinforced one more difficult to extinguish than behaviors that have been continually reinforced Instinctive Drift the tendency for animals to revert to instinctive behaviors that may interfere with learning Applied Behavior Analysis A psychotherapy technique that uses the direct application of rewards and punishments to change maladaptive behaviors in humans Chapter 6 part 1 Memory MemoryThe retention of information or experiences over time Three Key Memory Processes Encoding the process of taking information int through your senses and translating it into a form that your brain can write down and store for later use Sometimes it happens automatically Sometimes it takes effort Encoding Processes Selective Attention Focusing on a specific aspect of experience while ignoring others Constantly working Stimuli compete for our attention Characteristics of Selective Attention we can only fully attend to one thing at a time items compete for our attention cocktail party effect inattention leads to encoding failure Levels of Processing a continuum of memory processing ranging from shallow physical features are analyzed processing to deepmeaningful characteristics processing Deep processing leads to better memory Intermediate Processing recognition and labeling Elaboration the web of connectors associations and relevant meanings given to a stimulus Tuesday Thursday November 3 November 5 Mental lmagery Creating a mental story or scene around stimuli that we would like to remember Dual code hypothesis memory is stored in two ways verbal code and picture code mental images are remembered better because it contains both picture and verbal codes Storag second step in memory filing it away Memory Storage how is information retained over time and represented in memory Atkinson Shiffrin Model of Memory Box Model Selective attention Rehearsal Sensory inpUt Sensory Shortterm gt Longterm gt gt Memory Memory Memory LOSt Lost Retrieval Sensory Memory first step of memory storage process Holds information in your mind for a very brief period of time Echoic Sensory Memory Auditory sensory memory that lasts up to several seconds Iconic Sensorv Memorv Visual sensory memory that lasts about a quarter of a second Working Memory Short Term Memory limited capacity memory system which stores information for approximately 30 seconds without effort Also called working memory 1 T Capacity of shortterm memory digit span test we retain 7 2 items of information effects of chunking Inputvia Duration of shortterm memory without effort sensory 952539 around 30 seconds Effects of rehearsal Effects of memmy distractors Working Memory alternative way of explaining short term memory Proposed by Alan Baddeley 1993 Three Parts of Working Memory Central Executive Phonological Loop Visuospatial Working Memory WW Tuesday Thursday November 3 November 5 LongTerm Memory Retrieval bringing it back