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Chapter 12: Leadership

by: Kayla Kanteena

Chapter 12: Leadership MGMT 306

Kayla Kanteena
GPA 2.96

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These notes come from the book Essentials of Organizational Behavior by Robbins Judge * Trait theories of leadership * Behavioral theories * Contingency theories of leadership * Charismatic lea...
Organizational Behavior and Diversity
Jacqueline Hood
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Kanteena on Thursday November 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MGMT 306 at University of New Mexico taught by Jacqueline Hood in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 180 views. For similar materials see Organizational Behavior and Diversity in Business, management at University of New Mexico.

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Date Created: 11/05/15
Organizational Behavior and Diversity Chapter 12: Leadership What is Leadership? Leadership: the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals. Just because an organization provides its managers with certain formal rights is no assurance they will lead effectively. Nonsanctioned leadership – the ability to influence that arises outside the formal structure of the organization – is often as important as or more important than formal positions of influence. We need leaders to challenge the status quo, create visions of the future, and inspire organizational members to achieve these visions. Trait Theories Trait theories of leadership: theories that consider personal qualities and characteristics that differentiate leaders from nonleaders. Leaders who like being around people and are able to assert themselves (extraverted), who are disciplined and able to keep commitments they make (conscientious), and who are creative and flexible (open) do have an apparent advantage when it comes to leadership. There are two conclusions: (1) We can say traits can predict leadership and (2) traits do a better job predicting the emergence of leaders and the appearance of leadership than distinguishing between effective and ineffective leaders. Trait theories help us predict leadership, but they don’t help us explain leadership. Behavioral Theories Behavioral theories of leadership: imply that we can determine leadership effectiveness by leader behavior, and perhaps train people to be leaders. Initiating structure: is the extent to which a leader is likely to define and construct her/his role and those of employees in the search for goal attainment.  Includes behavior that attempts to organize work, work relationships, and goals.  A leader high in initiating structure is someone task-oriented who “assigns group members to particular tasks,” “expects workers to maintain definite standards of performance,” and “emphasizes the meeting of deadlines.” Consideration: is the extent to which a person’s job relationships are characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees’ ideas, and regard for their feelings.  A leader high in consideration helps employees with personal problems, is friendly and approachable, treats all employees as equals, and expresses appreciation and support. Employee-oriented leader: emphasizes interpersonal relationships by taking a personal interest in employees’ needs and accepting individual differences. Organizational Behavior and Diversity Production-oriented leader: emphasizes technical or task aspects of jobs, focusing on accomplishing the group’s tasks. As important as traits and behaviors are in identifying effective or ineffective leaders, they do not guarantee success. Contingency Theories When researchers looked at situational influences, it appeared that under condition a, leadership style x would be appropriate, whereas style y was more suitable for condition b, and style z for condition c. But what were conditions a, b, and c? Fiedler contingency model: proposes that effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leader’s style and the degree to which the situation gives the leader control.  Least preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaire: identifies leadership style by measuring whether a person is task oriented or relationship-oriented. o It asks respondents to think of all the coworkers they have ever had and describe the one they least enjoyed working with, on a scale of 1 to 8, for 16 contrasting adjectives. o If you describe the person you are least able to work with in favorable terms (a high LPC score), you are relationship-oriented. If you rate your least-preferred coworker in unfavorable terms (a low LPC score), you are primarily interested in productivity and are task-oriented.  If a situation requires a task-oriented leader and the person in the leadership position is relationship oriented, either the situation has to be modified or the leader has to be replaced to achieve optimal effectiveness. Assess by the situation in terms of three contingency or situational dimensions: o Leader-member relations: the degree of confidence, trust, and respect members have in their leader o Task structure: the degree to which the job assignments are procedurized (structured or unstructured) o Position power: the degree of influence a leader has over power variables such as hiring, firing, discipline, promotions, and salary increases.  According to the Fiedler’s model, the higher the task structure becomes, the more procedures are added; and the stronger the position power, the more control the leader has.  Task-oriented leaders perform best in situations of high and low control, while relationship-oriented leaders perform best in moderate control situations.  Evaluation = the logic underlying the LPC questionnaire is not well understood, and respondents’ scores are not stable. The contingency variables are also complex and difficult for practitioners to assess. The Fiedler model is widely known and referenced but its practical application is sometimes problematic. Situational leadership theory (SLT): focuses on the followers. Successful leadership depends on selecting the right leadership style contingent on the followers’ readiness, the extent to which Organizational Behavior and Diversity followers are willing and able to accomplish a specific task. A leader should choose one of the four behaviors.  If followers are unable and unwilling to do a task – the leader needs to give clear and specific directions  If followers are unable but willing – the leader needs to display high task orientation to compensate for followers’ lack of ability, and high relationship orientation to get them to “buy into” the leader’s desires  If followers are able but unwilling - the leader needs to use a supportive and participative style  If followers are both able and willing – the leader doesn’t need to do much Path-goal theory: developed by Robert House, it suggests it’s the leader’s job to provide followers with information, support, or other resources necessary to achieve goals. The theory predicts:  Directive leadership yields greater satisfaction when tasks are ambiguous or stressful than when they are highly structured and well laid out.  Supportive leadership results in high performance and satisfaction when employees are performing structured tasks.  Directive leadership is likely to be perceived as redundant by employees with high ability or considerable experience. Charismatic Leadership and Transformational Leadership Charismatic leadership theory: followers attribute heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors and tend to give these leaders power.  Charismatic leaders have a vision, are willing to take personal risks to achieve that vision, are sensitive to follower needs, and exhibit extraordinary behaviors.  Individuals are born with traits that make them charismatic. Personality is also related to charismatic leadership; charismatic leaders are likely to be extraverted, self-confident, and achievement-oriented.  If you stay active and central in your leadership roles, you will naturally communicate your vision for achieving goals to your followers, which increases the likelihood that you will be seen as charismatic.  To further develop an aura of charisma, use your passion as a catalyst for generating enthusiasm. Speak in an animated voice, reinforce your message with eye contact and facial expression, and gesture for emphasis.  Vision: a long-term strategy for attaining a goal by linking the present with a better future for the organization  Vision statement: a formal articulation of an organization’s vision or mission. o Charismatic leaders may use vision statements to imprint on followers an overarching goal and purpose. Organizational Behavior and Diversity o Through words and actions, the leader conveys values and sets an example for followers to imitate. o The charismatic leader engages in emotion-inducing and often unconventional behavior to demonstrate courage and conviction about the vision.  One factor that enhances charismatic leadership is stress. We may be more receptive to charismatic leadership under crises because we think bold leadership is needed. Charismatic leaderships are able to reduce stress for their followers, perhaps because they help make work seem more meaningful and interesting.  Research has shown that individuals who are narcissistic are also higher in some behaviors associated with charismatic leadership. Many charismatic – but corrupt – leaders have allowed their personal goals to override the goals of the organization.  Success depends, to some extent, on the situation, on the leader’s vision, and on the organizational checks and balances in place to monitor the outcomes. Transactional leaders: those who guide their followers toward established goals by clarifying role and task requirements Transformational leaders: those who inspire followers to transcend their self-interests for the good of the organization Research suggests that transformational leaders are most effective when their followers are able to see the positive impact of their work through direct interaction with customers or other beneficiaries. Transactional and transformational leadership complement each other; they aren’t opposing approaches to leadership effectiveness. Transformational leadership builds on transactional leadership and produces levels of follower effort and performance beyond what transactional leadership alone can do. Effective Idealized Influence Inspirational Motivation Intellectual Stimulation Individualized Passive Consideration Active Contingent Reward Management by Exception Laissez-Faire Ineffective Figure 1: Full Range of Leadership Model Organizational Behavior and Diversity Figure 1 shows the full range of leadership model as follows:  Laissez-faire – means “let it be” and is the most passive and therefore the least effective of leader behaviors  Management by exception – leaders primarily “put out fires” when there are crisis exceptions to normal operating procedures, means they are often too late to be effective  Contingent reward – predetermined rewards are given for employees to go above and beyond the call of duty  The remaining four, known as the “four I’s” – leaders are able to motivate followers to perform above expectations and transcend their self-interest for the sake of the organization. All result in extra effort from workers, higher productivity, higher morale and satisfaction, higher organizational effectiveness, lower turnover, lower absenteeism, and greater organizational adaptability. Based on this model, leaders are generally most effective when they regularly use the four I’s. Companies with transformational leaders show greater agreement among top managers about the organization’s goals, which yields superior organizational performance. Transformational leadership has a greater impact on the bottom line in smaller, privately held firms than in more complex organizations. Transformational leadership can depend on the following:  Individual-focused transformational leadership – is behavior that empowers individual followers to develop, enhance their abilities, and increase self-efficacy.  Team-focused transformational leadership – emphasizes group goals, shared values and beliefs, and unified efforts. Transformational leaders are more effective because they are creative, but also because they encourage those who follow them to be creative too. Creativity and empowerment are key to organizational success, and transformational leaders are able to increase follower self-efficacy. Charismatic leadership places somewhat more emphasis on how leaders communicate while transformational leadership focuses more on what is communicated. Both theories focus on the ability of leaders to inspire followers. Authentic Leadership: Ethics and Trust Authentic leaders: focuses on the moral aspects of being a leader; they know who they are, they know what they believe in, and act on those values and beliefs openly and candidly.  The primary quality produced is trust. They share information, encourage open communication, and stick to their ideals. Which result in people having faith in them.  Leaders who treat their followers with fairness, especially by providing honest, frequent, and accurate information, are seen as more effective. Humbleness, is another characteristic ethical leaders show, as part of being authentic. Organizational Behavior and Diversity Socialized charismatic leadership: an integration of ethical and charismatic leadership which conveys other-centered values by modeling ethical conduct. These leaders are able to bring employee values in line with their own values through their words and actions. Servant leadership: focus on opportunities to help followers grow and develop. They emphasize persuasion.  Characteristic behaviors include listening, empathizing, persuading, accepting stewardship, and actively developing followers’ potential  A study found servant leadership resulted in higher levels of commitment to the supervisor, self-efficacy, and perceptions of justice, which are all related to organizational citizenship behavior.  It increases team potency (a belief that one’s team has above-average skills and abilities), which in turn leads to higher levels of group performance.  Another study found a higher level of organizational citizenship behavior was associated with a focus on growth and advancement, which in turn was associated with a higher level of creative performance. Trust: is a psychological state that exists when you agree to make yourself vulnerable to another person because you have positive expectations about how things are going to turn out. Trust is a primary attribute associated with leadership; breaking it can have serious adverse effects on a group’s performance. Followers are confident their rights and interests will not be abused. Transformational leaders generate higher levels of trust from their followers, which relate to higher levels of team confidence and higher levels of team performance. Trust between supervisors and employees has the following advantages:  Trust encourages taking risks  Trust facilitates information sharing  Trusting groups are more effective  Trust enhances productivity Leading for the Future: Mentoring Mentor: is a senior employee who sponsors and supports a less experienced employee, a protégé. Successful mentors are good teachers. They present ideas clearly, listen well, and empathize with protégés’ problems. Mentoring relationships both formal and informal, serve career functions and psychosocial functions. The goal is to show the protégé how the organization really works outside its formal structures and procedures. Organizational Behavior and Diversity Mentors may be effective not because of the functions they provide, but because of the resources they can obtain; a mentor connected to a powerful network can build relationships that will help the protégé advance. Network ties, whether built through a mentor or not, are a significant predictor of career success. Challenges to the Leadership Construct Attribution theory of leadership: says that leadership is merely an attribution people make about other individuals.  We attribute the following to leaders: intelligence, outgoing personality, strong verbal skills, aggressiveness, understanding, and industriousness.  We tend, rightly or wrongly, to see leaders as responsible for both extremely negative and extremely positive performance.  Attribution theory suggests it is important to project the appearance of being a leader rather than focusing on actual accomplishments. Substitutes: those that replace the need for a leader’s support or ability to create structure, which include experience and training. Organizational characteristics such as explicit formalized goals, rigid rules and procedures, and cohesive work groups can replace formal leadership, while indifference to organizational rewards can neutralize its effects. Neutralizers: make it impossible for leader behavior to make any difference to follower outcomes. Finding and Creating Effective Leaders Personality tests can identify traits associated with leadership – extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness. High self-monitors are better at reading situations and adjusting their behavior accordingly. High emotional intelligence should have an advantage. Experience is a poor predictor of leader effectiveness, but situation-specific experience is relevant. Leadership training:  Leadership training is likely to be more successful with high self-monitors.  Organizations can teach implementation skills  Can teach skills such as trust building and mentoring. Leaders can be taught situational- analysis skills  Behavioral training through modeling exercises can increase an individual’s ability to exhibit charismatic leadership qualities.  Leaders should engage in regularly reviewing their leadership after key organizational events.  Leaders can be trained in transformational leadership skills that have bottom-line results.


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