GEO 101-007 Chapter 15 Notes
GEO 101-007 Chapter 15 Notes GEO 101-007
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Gintovt on Thursday November 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 101-007 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. William Lambert in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see The Dynamic Earth in Geology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 11/05/15
Chapter 15 Restless Realm Oceans and Coasts The Water Cycle nwter cyc j Volcanlc Chaptteefx W Condensation r Sublimation lce nd ll 1 v n ow quot 0 Des 39rquotlt39 Evapotransplration h g a Evapciratlon 1 v tv39 y 39139 v 1 60 of the world s population lives on the coast Hurricane Patricia Strongest hurricane ever recorded Western Hemisphere o 200 mph sustained Winds over ocean o 165 mph sustained Winds over land 0 Minimal structural damage due to landfall along a rural section of coastline 0 Death toll 6 Hurricane Katrina statistics Peak Intensity 175 mph Winds cat 5 over open ocean Landfall intensity 120 mph Winds cat 3 Landfall August 29 2005 Manmade levees broke august 30 2005 Damage 108 billion Death toll estimate ranges from 1245 to 1836 What does crust have to do with oceans Compared to continental crust oceanic crust is more dense thinner and younger These differences result in the surface of the oceanic crust having a lower elevation than continental crust The ocean oor is not at The ocean oor has more change in relative elevation than the continental crust Mariana trench is deeper than Mt Everest is tall gt The ocean is not the deepest in the center Variation in depth Ocean Floor Features Passive Continental Margin Continental shelf Wide Continental slope Continental rise Passive Continental Margin Relatively shallow water Relatively at Active Continental Margin Deep trenches Mariana Trench Active Continental Margin Continental shelf narrow Continental slope steeper Trench Abyssal Plain Submarine canyons Seamounts Mid ocean ridges A Passive Continental Margin Abyssal Plains and Seamounts As the lithosphere moves away from the midocean ridge s readin centers it cools down and sinks This now at section of ocean oor is called an amp Hotsiot volcanoes nonplate boundary related that do not rise above sea level are Ocean Water and Currents Salinity the degree of concentration of salt in water 0 Can be expressed in parts per thousand ppt Fresh water salinity 02 ppt Average ocean salinity 35 ppt Dead Sea salinity 43 ppt If all ocean water were evaporated at 60 meter thick layer of salt would be deposited 75 halite N aCl plus gypsum anhydrite and other salts Ocean Water Salinity Variation Ocean water salinity variation is a function of 0 Water temperature warm water can hold more salt I Tropics are generally warmer due to more solar radiation I A large difference in water temperature with depth exists near the tropics I Warm water from tropics is transported toward the poles by currents 0 Addition of freshwater from river runoff groundwater ice melt and direct rain 0 Evaporation rate at oceans surface 0 Ocean currents fast moving vs slow I a welldefined stream of ocean water I Surface Currents are caused by interaction between wind and the surface of water Only affects the upper few hundred meters of water I Deep Currents are also in uenced by wind due to zones of upwelling and downwelling Ocean Surface Currents Rivers in the Sea the de ection of objects winds and currents on the surface of the Earth owing to the planets rotation A large circular ow pattern of ocean surface currents Ocean Deep Currents Rivers in the Sea g I Upwelling wind pushing water away from coast southern wind Downwelling wind pushing water toward the coast northern wind 339 Earth The rising and sinking of water driven by contrasts in water density which is due in turn to differences in temperature and salinity this circulation involves both surface and deep water currents in the ocean Ocean Tides the elevation difference between sea level at high tide and low tide Largest tidal reach 546 ft Bay of Fundy Canada Wave Action Cause shear of wind blowing over the water surface Energy decreases with depth Wave morphology o Crest top of the wave 0 Through low area between waves 0 Base the level in depth to which a wave affects the water Wave parameters 0 Wave height distance between through amp crest o Wavelength horizontal distance between crests 0 Wave ieriod time interval between passage of two successive crests o The bending of the waves as they approach the shore at an angle 0 Because of wave refraction wave energy is concentrated against sides and ends of headlands causing coastal erosion I Low energy sites associated with sand deposition embayment Coastal landforms c Landforms of a rocky shore Beaches coilect in ambavments whereas eroswon concentrates at headlands Embayment Headbnd r bmbmo I f Sea cave VVavecut notch A lt Gravel beach Future sea stack Longshore Current and Longshore Drift o Responsible for sediment transport along coast The Coastal Zone F Backshore i Mainland Beach Egnii a 3 B Beach an accumulation of sediment found along a l w i d39 7 faec rifx a Berm landward margin of ocean Offshore Bars Submerged or partly exposed ridge of sand or coarse sediment that is built by waves offshore from a beach Breaking waves dig into the sand near the shore creating trough The excavated sand is deposited either on the beach or aside forming sandbar offshore bar Barrier Islands Offshore piles of sane built above sea level that is a result of high rate of sediment deposition due to wave and tide activity Estuaries c This profile shows the components of the beach environment Barrier island Baymouth bar av Longshore current N Baymouth spit I Sand Mud Wetland d Beach drift can generate sand spits and baymouth bars Sedimentation eventually fills in the region behind a baymouth bar An inlet in which seawater and river water miX created when a coastal valley is ooded because of either rising sea level or land subsidence sinking Barbuilt estuaries 0 Form when a shallow lagoon or bay is protected from the ocean by a sand bar or a barrier island Coastal Plain Estuaries o Formed at the end of the last ice age between l0000l8000 years ago As glaciers receded and melted sea levels rose and submerged lowlying river valleys Fjord A deep glacially carved Ushaped valley ooded by rising sea level Organic Coasts A coast along which living organisms control landforms along the shore Coastal wetlands salt marshes and mangroves Coral reefs Coastal Hazards and Problems Tsunami Hurricanes 0 Atlantic Hurricane Basin Sea level rise Coastal erosion
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