GEO 101-007 Chapter 16 Notes
GEO 101-007 Chapter 16 Notes GEO 101-007
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Gintovt on Thursday November 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 101-007 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. William Lambert in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see The Dynamic Earth in Geology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 11/05/15
GEO 101007 11215 Chapter 16 A Hidden Reserve Groundwater Groundwater Water that resides under the surface of the Earth mostly in pores and cracks of rock or sediment Formation of Karst Landscape Ground ajimih j39eW i S39tgfghfsltre A region by underlain by caves in surface limestone bedrock the collapse of the cave creates a landscape of sinkholes separated by higher topography or of limestone spires separated by low areas p Limestone bedrock Porosity and Permeability Porosity the total volume of empty space pore space in a material usually expressed as a percentage pores can become lled with water Permeability the degree to which a material allows uids to pass through it via an interconnected network of pores and spaces The Saturated and Unsaturated zone Water Table the boundary approximately parallel to the Earth s surface that separates substrate in which groundwater lls the pores from substrate in which air lls the pores Unsaturated Zone the region of the subsurface above the water table pore space may contain some water and some air Saturated Zone the region below the water table where pore space is lled with water Aquifers and Aquitards Ag uitard sediment or rock that does not transmit water easily and therefore retards slows down stops the motion of water typically has both low porosity and permeability Ag uifer sediment or rock that transmits water easily has high porosity and permeability o Confined Aquifer an aquifers that is separated from the Earth s surface by an overlying aquitard o Uncon ned Aquifer an aquifer that intersects the surface of the earth Perched Aquifer a mound of groundwater becomes trapped above a localized aquitard that lies above the regional water table Groundwater Flow Gravity and pressure cause groundwater to ow groundwater can ow sideways and even upward Infiltrate seep down into GEO 101007 11215 Recharge area a location where water enters the ground and in ltrates down to the water table Discharge Area a location where groundwater ows back up to the surface and may emerge at springs Cone of Depression Hydraulic Head the potential energy available to drive the ow of a given volume of groundwater at a location can be measured as an elevation above a reference Land surface Well Groundwater Flow Radius ofinfluence I Very slow compared to surface water Rate can vary from 4 to 500 meters per year 13 to 1640 Pumping level feet per year wequot casing Aquifer Rate is a function the slope of the water table hydraulic Well screen head and the permeability of the material through which the groundwater is owing Impermeable material Moves at a snail s pace Potentiometric surface Artesian Well A well in which water rises on its own Potentiometric surface the elevation to which water in an artesian system would rise if unimpeded where there are owing artesian wells the potentiometric surface lies above ground 1quot 1 Flowing Standpipe Aquifer Nonflowing artesian well artesian well Spring A natural outlet from which groundwater ows onto the ground surface Where the ground surface intersects the water table 11 a discharge area Various Types of springs Where owing groundwater collides with a steep impermeable barrier and pressure pushes it up to the ground along the barrier Where a perched water table intersects the surface of a hill Where downwardpercolating water runs into a relatively impermeable layer and migrates along the top surface of the layer to a hillslope Where a network of interconnected fractures channels groundwater to the surface of a hill Oasis A verdant green with grass etc region surrounded by desert occurring at a place where natural springs provide water to the surface GEO 101007 11215 Hot spring a spring that emits water ranging in temperature from 30140 degrees C Hot Spring Rock deposits Travertine a rock composed of crystalline calcium carbonate formed by chemical precipitation from groundwater that has seeped out at the ground surface Groundwater Concerns Change of groundwater ow direction Saltwater intrusion Ground subsidence 0 When intensive irrigation removes groundwater pore space in an aquifer collapses 0 As a result the land surface sinks leading to the formation of ground ssures and causing houses to crack