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Week of notes 11

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Week of notes 11 400

Dora Notetaker

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Here are the notes from Nov. 3 and Nov 5. We discussed how to get the Chi square statistic.
Research in Political Science
John E McNulty
Class Notes
political science, research methods, Statistics
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dora Notetaker on Thursday November 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 400 at University of Alabama at Birmingham taught by John E McNulty in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Research in Political Science in Public Relations at University of Alabama at Birmingham.

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Date Created: 11/05/15
          PSC 400­2D: Research in Political Science  Dr. McNulty  Set of Notes 11  Week of Nov 2    Tue, Nov. 3  Chi square statistic  ● It is used to compare 2 categorical variables  ● Like variables that cause countries to go to war with each others  International Relations researchers use dyads to compare countries  ● For each dyads, they ask 2 questions:  ○ Do they share a border  ○ Have they been to war with each other  ● They put these in a table  ● This is our Observed table      War  No War    Border  500  3000  3500  No border  1000  30,000  31,000    1500  33,000  34,500  ● (made up numbers)  ● sums on the outside of the table    ● We create an Expected table with the same numbers on the outside.    War  No War    Border  (Row1/Grand total)  (Row1/Grand total) x  35  x Column1  Column2  No  (Row2/Grand total)  (Row2/Grand total) x  310  border  x Column1  Column2    15  330  345    ● And this equals:    War  No War    Border  (35/345) x 15 = 1.5  33.5  35  No  13.5  296.5  310  border    15  330  345  ● The sums on the outsides of the graph should be the same as before  ● So you could subtract one of the rows   ● # of cell you have to work before you don’t have to use multiplication or division is known  as degrees of freedom, or df   ● df = (# of rows ­ 1) x (# of columns ­1)    For the Chi square statistic:          War  No War    Border  a  b    No  c  d    border          ● a = (5­1.5)​/ 1.5 = 8.2  ● b = (30­33.5)​2 /33.5 = 0.4  2​ ● c = (10­13.5)​ /13.5 = 0.9  ● d = (300­296.5)​2 /296.5 = 0.0  ● Sum = 8.2+0.4+0.9+0.0 = 9.5  χ2= 9.5      Thurs. Nov. 5    We looked at our sample SPSS table to see how to get the Chi Square Statistic  In SPSS, use the following buttons/ tabs to get the Chi square statistic:  1. Analyze tab ­ Descriptive Statistics ­ Crosstabs ­ Choose 2 variables ­ Statistics ­ check  the Chi square ­ Continue ­ OK  ● When you have the crosstabs window open, be sure to go to Cells, and hit both the  Expected and the Observed tabs  ● The middle table is the Expected table  ● The Chi square Tests table is your results    When looking at the Chi square table on the bottom, in the Pearson Chi Square row, the  number under Value is your chi square, the df is your degrees of freedom, and the last value in  the row is your percentage.   ● So if it says .019, it means you are 1.9% likely that the relationship could have happened  by random change, so there’s no true relationship.  ● So you’re 98.1% confident that there is a relationship between the variables, thereby  disproving the Null hypothesis (which says there is no relationship)    To select cases you need:  Data ­ Select Cases ­ Choose the variable you want ­ Under if, choose what you need ­ OK  ● You will see the cases you don’t need in your actual data table with a line through them    To compare means:  Analyze ­ Compare Means ­ Indep. Samples T Test ­ Choose 2 variables ­ Define Groups, put 0  and 1 ­ hit OK       


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