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by: N3koKikyu
GPA 3.5
Social Psychology

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About this Document

Notes for 11/3/15 and 11/5/15 Enjoy!
Social Psychology
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by N3koKikyu on Thursday November 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 70782 at George Mason University taught by Riskind in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 11/05/15
Tuesday November 3 2015 Social Psychology Conformity cont Informational Social Influence and Body Image Women s attempts to conform to cultural definitions of an attractive body This definition changes over time and differs from culture to culture Americans value extreme thinness Studies have shown that only in cultures with very reliable food supplies like the United States was the slender body type highly valued Group Processes Social Facilitation gt They tendency to do better on simple tasks and worse on complex tasks when in the presence of others and when individual performance can be evaluatedaso works on cockroaches Norman Tripplett 1898 children were faster winding up finishing line on a reel when in the presence of other children than when by themselves Robert Zajonc 1965 the presence of others increases physiological arousal Makes it easier to do something simple or welllearned but harder to do a less practiced or new response Why Arousal Increases in the Presence of Others 1 Other people can be unpredictable causing us to become more alert and vigilant mildly aroused 2 Evaluation apprehension nervous about how we re being evaluated or judged 3 Others distract us from the task at hand Distraction others distract us from the task at hand this dividing of our attention causes arousal Nonsocial sources of distraction such as a flashing light have been shown to cause the same kinds of social facilitation effects as the presence of other people Tuesday November 3 2015 Social Loafing When the Presence of Others Relaxes Us Social Loafing gt The tendency for people to do worse on simple tasks BUT better on complex tasks when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance cannot be evaluated Latane et al Max Rigelmann found in 1880 s gt when a group pulled on a rope each individual exerted less effort when doing it alone Comparing Social Loafing with Social Facilitation Social Facilitation the presence of others puts the spotlight on you making you energized or aroused Social loafing when being with other people means our efforts often cannot be distinguished from those of other people making us more relaxed Reducing Social Loafing o o o o o o 1 Make individual contributions identifiable You have to care about what the group 2 Emphasize valuable indIVIdual contributions thinks of you o 3 Keep group size at an appropriate level 39 O O o o o 0 Cultural Differences and Social Loafing The tendency to loaf is STRONGER in Western cultures than Asian cultures Asians are more likely to have an interdependent view of the self which is a way of defining oneself in terms of relationships to other people Reduces the tendency toward social loafing when in groups Group Cohesiveness gt Qualities of a group that bind members together and promote liking between members Higher cohesiveness members stay in group take part in activities and try to recruit in new likeminded members Group Cohesiveness can either Help OR Hurt your performance Improves performance when close cooperation is needed Hurt performance when getting along becomes more important than finding good solutions Group Decisions groups do better than individuals when making decisions Tuesday November 3 2015 Groupthink gt A kind of thinking which maintaining group cohesiveness and solidarity is more important than considering the facts in a realistic manner According to Irving Janis s 1972 1982 theory groupthink is most likely to occur when the group is Highly cohesive Isolated from contrary opinions Ruled by a directive leader who makes his or her wishes known Avoiding the Groupthink Trap 1 Remain impartial 2 Seek outside opinions 3 Create subgroups 4 Seek anonymous opinions Thursday November 5 2015 Social Psychology Deindividuation Deindividuation gt the loosening of normal constraints on behavior when people can t be identified such as when they are in a crowd leading to an increase in impulsive and deviant acts getting lost in the crowd Unleashing of Extreme Behaviors Horrific acts committed by crowds Mobs of soccer fans sometimes attacking each other Hysterical fans at rock concerts trample each other to death Lynching of African Americans by people cloaked in the anonymity of white robes WHY 1 Deindividuation Makes people feel less accountable for their actions because it reduces the likelihood that any individual will be singled out and blamed 2 Deindividuation increases obedience to group norms Lynching or a Lovefest Does not always lead to destructive behavior it depends on what the norm of the group is SF love evolution parade 2009 Leadership in Groups Leadership myths Leadership means just having power over peoperather than working with people Leaders are born but leaders are also made Leaders make or break their groups the romance of leadership sometimes exaggerates the impact of a leader But leaders obviously can make a difference Theories of Leadership w Born Leaders The great Leader theory Thursday November 5 2015 Situational model the theory of Leo Tolstoy forces of history makes leaders lnteractional model it all depends on the leader followers and the group situation Great Man theories Gandhi Lincoln Napoleon 39 Personal Characteristics of Leaders Intelligence and degree of social skill expertise sill and experiences level of participation in discussion the babee effect the more they speak the more likely they will be seen as a leader Green light red light study gt when the green light went on they should speak red light stop speaking and then had group rate each other for leadership Those who had green light more frequently were chosen as leaders Demographic background of leaders height weight and age Sex bias against women even though women possess more of the skills needed to be a successful leader Implicit Leadership Theories ILTs gt members general beliefs about the qualities of leaders Two Broad Types of Leaders 1 Transactional Leaders Leaders who set clear shortterm goals and reward people who meet them 2 Transformational Leaders Leaders who inspire followers to focus on common longterm goals Person X Situation lnteractional Theories A leader can be successful in some situations but not others Contingency Theory of Leadership The idea that leadership effectiveness depends both on how taskoriented or relationshiporiented the leader is and on the amount of control and influence the leader has over the group 39 W A leader concerned more with getting the job done than with workers feelings and relationships Thursday November 5 2015 RelationshipOriented A leader who is concerned with workers feelings and relationships jofwef


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