Week 9 Lecture Notes
Week 9 Lecture Notes 103
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by firstname.lastname@example.org Notetaker on Sunday March 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 103 at Colorado State University taught by Tanya Dewey in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Life 103- Biology of Organisms in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 03/27/16
Animal Diversity and Evolution notes 3 Domains 1. Bacteria 2. Eukarya 3. Archaea Eukaryan Diversity -protists -plants -fungi -animals Choanoflagellates sister group of animals Metazoans another name for animals There are more animals than any other group. 70% of them are insects (number of species) Prokaryotes have been around longer than animals What are animals? 1. Multicellular 2. Ingestive heterotrophs 3. Move under volition 4. Lack cell walls, but have extracellular matrix 5. Unique, specialized cells: muscle and nerve cells 6. Sexual reproduction 7. 2n dominant 8. Flagellated sperm, non-motile egg 9. Most have larval stage 10. Cells organized into tissues 11. Conserved genes control development (hox genes) 12. Zygote undergoes cleavage, forms blastula gastrulation I-Clicker question: Nearly all animal phyla evolved in which era? A: Cambrian Eumetazoa true tissues Metazoa basal node -sponges are most primitive Origin of multi-cellularity -choanoflagellates are the unicellular sister group to animals -similar to sponges Origin of bilateral symmetry, nervous system, and cephalization -cephalization to form a head -sponge has no symmetry -radial symmetry flower -bilateral symmetry ability to form a head. Example beetles Echinoderms -sea stars have pentaradial symmetry but their larvae have bilateral symmetry Bilateral symmetry -nervous system is located at the head which aids in directionality -become effective predator and consumer Bilateria -genetic mechanism that is responsible for bilateral symmetry and cephalization Embryonic tissue -diplobastic 2 tissue layers -triploblastic 3 tissue layers Origin of coelom -animals are tubular Acoelomate doesn’t have a coelem Coelomate coelom lies within the mesoderm Pseudo coelomate false coelom. Has a body cavity that is touching both the mesoderm and endoderm I-Clicker Q: Do jellyfish have a coelom? A: No Protostome and deuterostome development Protostome means “first mouth” -Spiral and determinate cleavage -First hole that develops is the mouth Deuterostome means “second mouth” -Radial and indeterminate cleavage -Fate of cell not yet determined -First hole that is formed is the anus Deuterostome evolved once, protostome evolved a few times Deuterostome -humans -Chordata -Echinodermata -Hemichordata Almost everything else is a protosome Origin of Segmentation -all animal groups show segmentation -hox genes common genes for segmentation Benefit of segmentation -different parts of the body can specialize for different functions Invertebrates I Notes Big 9 Animal phyla 1. Porifera (sponges) a. Habitat mostly marine b. Motility sessile c. Diet filter feeding 2. Cnidaria a. Habitat mostly marine b. Motility motile and sessile c. Diet Predatory and filter feeder d. Diversity more than 10,000 species 3. Platyhelminthes (flat worm) a. Habitat moist habitats b. Motility motile c. Diet predator or parasite d. Diversity 25,000 species 4. Mollusca a. Habitat marine, fresh water, terrestrial b. Motility motile and sessile c. Diet predatory, filter feeder, or detrivores d. Diversity 85,000 species 5. Annelida a. Habitat marine, fresh water, terrestrial b. Motility motile and sessile c. Diet predator or parasite 6. Nematoda (most abundant) a. Habitat all habitats b. Motility motile c. Diet parasite or free-living d. Diversity 15,000 species 7. Arthropoda a. Habitat Marine, fresh water, terrestrial b. Motility Motile c. Diet several forms d. Diversity millions 8. Echinodermata (starfish) a. Habitat marine b. Motility motile c. Diet filter feeders 9. Chordata a. Habitat Land, marine, fresh water b. Motility motile c. Diet Lots of forms of feeding Majority of species are found in water, but the most divers (the big 9) are found on land
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