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Week One of Lecture-Matter and Classification

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by: Jessica Brown

Week One of Lecture-Matter and Classification CHM 101

Marketplace > Arizona State University > Chemistry > CHM 101 > Week One of Lecture Matter and Classification
Jessica Brown

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About this Document

This chapter involves the different types of matter and it's class. You will learn more about mixtures, elements, nonmetals and metals. The notes include what slide had what problem on it, because ...
CHM 101
Doug Sawyer
Class Notes
ASU, Chem, sawyer, 2015
25 ?




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"Same time next week teach? Can't wait for next weeks notes!"
Alf Ward

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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Brown on Thursday November 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHM 101 at Arizona State University taught by Doug Sawyer in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see CHM 101 in Chemistry at Arizona State University.


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Date Created: 11/05/15
Chapter 1 Matter & Classification  Matter is anything that takes up space  Forms of energy are NOT matter Example: Heat, Light Classification Catergories SOLID-LIQUID-GAS Composition of Matter Matter Pure Mixure Substance Elements Compoun ds -Pure Substances have a fixed chemical Composition Example: H2O -Mixtures are composed of two or more pure substances and composition can vary Example: Koolaid Pure Substances Elements CANNOT be broken down, not even by a chemical reaction Compounds - Composed of two or more elements KNOW THE ELEMENTS ON SLIDE #17 Elements Nonmeta Metals ls NONMETAL EXAMPLES: Phosphorus Bromine Carbon Sulfur ATOMS -Matter is composed of atoms -Smallest unit of an Element -Atoms can be found combined in molecules *MOLECULES ARE COMBINED OF TWO ATOMS!* -Molecules can be made of the same element or of two different elements. Compound molecule WILL have two different elements Example: H20 Element molecules will have the same element in them, DUH! Elements in a compound won’t behave like their pure self! Mixtures -Mixtures: Combinations of two or more elements or compounds. Mixtures differ because their components can be physically process, and separate the elements inside. Examples: INK SALT WATER AIR Salt can be separated by Evaporation Mixtures Homogenous Heterogeneo us Homogenous: Have uniform composition, in other words they look the same and have no difference in color. Example: Salt Water, Lake Water, Air, Tap Water Heterogeneous: Do no have the same uniform composition, in other words they don’t look the same at all. Example: potting soil Represenations of Matter -Macroscopic : we can see with our eyes -Molecular Level : magnification to a level that we can actually see the atoms - Symbolic: Shorthand using a element’s symbol. States of Matter SOLID The atoms can vibrate, but they don’t really go anywhere. They are a fixed shape and can’t move freely LIQUID The atoms can move freely to a certain extent, and can be shaped but only when they are contained. They have a random movement and move freely. GAS The atoms are able to move freely, and have no boundaries only when contained, but even then they can move freely and ALSO CAN EXPAND. Symbols used in Chemistry -Elements can be shorthand Example: He= Helium -They can be one to two letters. Normally a capital and a lowercase For: - SOLID (X) -LIQUID (L) -Gas (g) Physical and Chemical Changes Physical properties that we can observe Example: Boiling, Flammable Unit and Conversions SLIDE #45 MASS Measures the quantity of matter -diffrent from weight, FACT: 1g=1,000 miligrams (SLIDE # 49) EXAMPLE: 24 TBSP (1stick/ 8TBSP) = 3 Sticks SLIDE 50 12,000mg or 1.20x10^4mg o.423 oz Significant Figures SLIDE 51 EXAMPLE 250m is 2 SF 250.M is 3 SF a Scienctific Notation is 2.5 x 10^2m Volume A amount of space a substance occupies VOLUME= L X W X H SLIDE 53 ANSWER: 8.0cm3 1ml= 1cm3 EXACT Liquids for their volume are normally measured in mL 1mL= 1,000mliters SLIDE 55 ANSWERS: 25.0ml x 1L/1,000mL = 0.0250L 0.0250L x 1.057qt/ 1L = 0.0264qt DENSITY The ratio of mass to it’s volume UNITS ARE: g/ml g/L liquid at the bottom has the highest density is how packed is the matter in the container The density of a substance is the ratio of it’s mass to volume: D= MASS/Volume Temperature -a measure of how hot or cold something is. -Measured with a thermometer -Freezing point of water 32F 0C -Boiling Point of water is 212F 100C 108F=1.8(Tc) + 32 108-32= 1.8(Tc) (108-32)= TC 1.8 Physical Changes A Physical change is when the substance is turning into a gas, or a liquid. SOLID TO LIQUID= MELTING SOLID TO GAS= SUBLIMATION GAS TO SOLID= DEPOSITION GAS TO LIQUID= CONDENSATION LIQUID TO GAS= VAPORIZATION LIQUID TO SOLID = FREEZING Chemical Changes  Is a Process where one or more substances are converted into more new substances  Also know as a chemical Reaction Examples: Pennies tarnishing Burning gasoline The reaction of Hydrogen and Oxygen to form water During a chemical change the molecules are made into new substances Chemical Properties  Descriptions of the ability of a substance to undergo a chemical change. o Example: Iron Rusts o Silver tarnishes Energy and Energy Changes Energy is the capacity to do work or transfer heat  Two forms of energy o Kinetic energy: the energy of motion o Potential energy: energy possessed by an object o Other forms are: chemical, mechanical, electrical, heat When a physical or chemical change occurs the energy changes too. Examples: When wood burns with oxygen, energy in the form of heat is released. Kinetic energy will INCREASE WHEN TEMPERATURE INCREASES An Item can have both energies in one action Slide 85 Scientific Inquiry  Is an approach to asking questions and seeking answers that employs a variety of tools, techniques and strategies.  STARTS WITH observations o Includes  Experimentation  Collection of Data  A hypothesis is a tentative explanation fro the properties or behavior of matter that accounts for a set observations and can be tested.  LAW o Describes the way nature operates under a specified set of conditions  THEORY o A explanation that is widely accepted, and extensively tested Observations can become laws, and Hypothesis can become theories SCIENTIFIC METHOD Laws don’t change, explanations do SCIENTIFIC NOTATION o A number that is written in SN is expressed as:  C x 10’ Precision VS. Accuracy The precision of a measured number is the extent of the agreement between repeated measurements of it’s value Accuracy is a comparison of the value of a measured number and it’s expected or correct value. Dimensional Analysis A possible approach to problem solving involves 4 steps: 1. Decide what the problem is asking for 2. Decide what relationships exist between the information given in the problem and the desired quantity. 3. Set up the problem logically, using the relationships decided upon in step2 4. Check the answer to make sure it makes sense both in magnitude and units


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