Jovian Planets and Formation of the Universe
Jovian Planets and Formation of the Universe AST 101 - M001
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AST 101 - M001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mitchell Jones on Thursday November 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AST 101 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by C. Armendariz-Picon in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Our Corner of the Universe in Astronomy at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 11/05/15
Jovian Planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune Jupiter Structure: Under pressure of the material above it in its makeup (atmosphere down to core), H changes phases as you get closer to core Under increasing high pressure H heats up Layers of Jupiter (from top to core): cloudy atmosphere, H gas, H liquid, metallic H, core Metallic H is liquid and conducts electrical charges Jupiter under Pressure: Like stacking pillows—adding more will increase height but will eventually condense and increase density Jupiter’s Magnetic field: Strongest of planets in solar system Auroras can be seen at the poles Jupiter’s Atmosphere: At least 3 distinct layers Ammonia (yellowish), ammonium sulfate (redorange), water vapor Gives Jupiter its color Jupiter Storms Fast rotation (9 hour days) cause winds that reach 250 mph Numerous storms can be seen on Jupiter Great red spot—storm twice size of earth, has lasted for centuries Jupiter moons: more than 60 Europa: large amount of iced water Signs of geological activity and tidal heating suggest huge oceans below surface Io: elliptical orbit causes continual changes in strength and direction of tidal force from Jupiter Flex Io’s interior and cause tidal heating Saturn: Rings: small water ice particles Each particle orbits like moon Ring formation: Likely originate from small moons orbiting Saturn New particles released from collisions between moonlets and other objects Saturn’s gravitational force prevents moons from forming larger bodies Formation of Solar System Important clues: Patterns of Motion Circular planetary orbits on same plane Planets orbit sun in same direction Most planets rotate in same direction as orbit Tilts generally small 2 types of planets Terrestrial: rocky and metal surface Small and dense Jovian: large and less dense Mostly H and He Asteroids and comets Asteroids: small rocky bodies mostly found in asteroid belt Comets: small icy bodies found mostly in Kuiper belt and Oort’s Cloud Nebular theory: solar system formed from gravitational collapse of gas cloud Nebula: gas cloud produced from explosion from dead previous star Diffuse and cold cloud of gas (mainly H and He but some heavier elements) Star Dust: origins of Universe H and He only elements manufactured in early universe Heavier elements produced by previous generations of stars We are all star dust Collapse: Gravity causes cloud to collapse under own weight As it collapses: temp increases (energy conversion)—hottest at center, coldest at boundary Rotate rate increases (angular momentum conservation) It flattened Sun and planets formed in this spinning disk Flattens because it’s easier than collapsing inward (ball on spinning plate example) Pressure very large at center—increase temp (H and He will fuse and form star) When planets form they follow motion of spinning disk Why Planets Form: Condensation Sun formed at center of cloud—increase temp ignites nuclear fusion Planets developed from planetary seeds formed by condensation Temp of disk determined materials able to condense and develop into planets (highest temps needed to produce metals, then rocks, H compounds, H and He gas) Frost line Heavier H rich planets able to form beyond frost line Small, metal rich planets formed within frost line Explains terrestrial and Jovian planets Accretion Encounters between condensed seeds led to larger objects “accretion” Some of these planetesimals eventually grew into planets Clean up Radiation from sun and solar wind cleaned up remaining gas not bound to planets in nebula Asteroid belt is made from leftovers of planetary formation within frost line Jupiter too large for planet to form there (too large gravitational force) Kuiper belt and Oort Cloud contain leftovers from beyond frost line
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